Mortality (demo_mor)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. ContactTop
1.1. Contact organisationEurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unitUnit F1: Population statistics
1.5. Contact mail address2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata updateTop
2.1. Metadata last certified02/03/2010
2.2. Metadata last posted02/03/2010
2.3. Metadata last update02/02/2012


3. Statistical presentationTop
3.1. Data description

Eurostat statistics on mortality are based on the annual demographic data collection in the field of demography carried out by Eurostat. The completeness of information depends on the availability of data reported by the National Statistical Institutes.

The first demographic data collection of each year (T), named Rapid, is carried out in April-May (deadline 15 May of year T); during this data collection the first results on the main demographic developments in the previous year (T-1) and the population on 1 January of the current year (T) are collected from the National Statistical Institutes.

The Joint demographic data collection is carried out in cooperation with United Nation Statistical Division (UNSD) in the summer of each year, having the deadline 15 September. During this data collection Eurostat collects from the National Statistical Institutes detailed data by sex, age and other characteristics for the demographic events (births, deaths, marriages and divorces) of the previous year and the population on 1 January of the current and previous years.

The Nowcast demographic data collection is carried out in October-November (deadline 15 November of year T). The monthly time series on births, deaths, immigrants and emigrants available from the beginning of current year (T) are collected, with the purpose of producing a forecast on 1 January population of the following year (T+1).

More specifically, during year T the following data are collected and disseminated on mortality field:

- Total number of deaths in year (T-1)

- Infant mortality by age and sex (T-1)

- Late foetal deaths by mother's age (T-1)

- Deaths by age, year of birth and sex (T-1)

- Deaths by age, sex and educational attainment (ISCED 1997)

- Deaths by month, year (T) and (T-1)

Based on these information, Eurostat currently computes and disseminates the following mortality indicators:

- Crude death rate

- Infant mortality rate

- Neonatal mortality rate

- Early neonatal mortality rate

- Late foetal mortality rate

- Perinatal mortality rate

- Life table

- Life expectancy by age and sex

- Life expectancy by age, sex and educational attainment (ISCED 1997) 

The most recent (aggregated) data on the number of deaths can be found under the Main demographic indicators. This includes also the most recent Eurostat now casts on the main demographic indicators (population, births, deaths and net migration including statistical adjustment). In principle, the table containing the main demographic indicators is updated three times per year, after each of the national data collections.

Detailed information on mortality (by age, sex, etc.) can be found under the section Mortality (demo_mor). These disaggregated information are updated towards the end of each year based on information collected during the Joint data collection.

Moreover, any update sent by the countries in-between data collections are validated, processed and uploaded into Eurostat's demographic database and in Eurostat's free dissemination online database as soon as possible. The geographical aggregates are recalculated accordingly.

The data transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes are validated by Eurostat, processed and uploaded into Eurostat's Demographic Database and in Eurostat's free dissemination online database. The data are also disseminated in several thematic and horizontal Eurostat's publications.

Data are presented at national level and for aggregates of countries. For EU and Euro Area, only the current and the previous geographical status are published. The currently disseminated geographical aggregates are: EU-27, EU-25, EA-16, and EA-15. Moreover, data is disseminated for the European Economic Area (EEA) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

3.2. Classification system

Not applicable

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Definitions:

'Death' means the permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after life birth has taken place (postnatal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation).

'Infant death' means the death of a live-born infant who has not yet completed 1 year of life.

'Foetal death' means the death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, the death being indicated by the fact that after such separation the foetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord or definite movement of voluntary muscles.

'Late foetal death' means foetal deaths of 28 weeks or more of completed weeks of gestation.

'Stillbirth' means the expulsion or extraction from the mother of a dead foetus after the time at which it would normally be presumed capable of independent extra uterine existence (commonly taken to be after 24 or 28 weeks of gestation). Infants who are born alive but die shortly after birth are excluded from this category.

Crude deaths rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths during the year to the average population in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 inhabitants.

Infant mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one year of age during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births.

Early neonatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one week during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births.

Late foetal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of still births during the year to the number of total births (live births + still births) in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 births.

Neonatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under 28 days during the year to the number of live births in that year. The value is expressed per 1000 live births

Perinatal mortality rate represents the ratio of the number of deaths of children under one week and the stillbirths during the year, to the number of births in that year (including stillbirths). The value is expressed per 1000 births.

Life expectancy at certain ages represents the mean number of years still to be lived by a person who has reached a certain exact age, if subjected throughout the rest of his or her life to the current mortality conditions (age-specific probabilities of dying).

Life table is one of the most important and most widely used devices in demography, summarizing various aspects of the variation of mortality with age and showing, for each age, the probability that a person of that age will die before their next birthday. One column of the table is "age" followed by columns that tabulate age-related functions pertaining to mortality: the numbers of survivors to various ages, deaths in particular age intervals, age specific death rates, probabilities of death in various age intervals, and life expectancy at given exact age.

The methodology for the calculation of Life table can be consulted in "Annex" at the bottom of the page.

Age concept:

Most National Statistical Institutes of the EU Member States provide data on deaths by both dimensions: age and year of birth. Two tables are compiled and disseminated based on the data collected: deaths by age at last birthday (also referred as age completed) and deaths by age reached during the year. The availability of data on deaths by the two age concepts among the countries starts at different moment of time series. Currently, all EU27 Member States provide data on deaths by the two concepts, with the exception of Ireland and Malta which measure mortality by age completed only.

Eurostat uses the concept of age completed for the calculation of the mortality indicators by age.

3.5. Statistical unit

See data and indicators

3.6. Statistical population

Total population

3.7. Reference area

European Union:

a. Individual Member States of the EU-27: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom.

Please note:

- FX stands for metropolitan France, including Corsica, excluding the overseas departments (DOM: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane, Réunion)).

- FR stands for the whole France, including the overseas departments (DOM).

- The time series for Germany (DE_TOT) refer to the Federal Republic within its frontiers after 3 October 1990.

- Starting from 1975, data for Cyprus (CY) refer to the government-controlled area.

- Up to 2000, population data for Malta (MT) refer to the Maltese population only while, starting from 2001, figures include also foreign resident. This is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 2001.

b. The aggregates for EU and Euro Area

Please note: These aggregates include FX until 1997 and FR from 1998 on. This change is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 1998.

EU Candidate countries:

Croatia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.

EFTA countries:

a. Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland.

b. The aggregates EEA and EFTA.

Please note: The aggregate EEA includes FX until 1997 and FR from 1998 on. This change is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 1998.

Other European countries:

Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244), Ukraine.

Please note: Data for Serbia do not include Kosovo.

3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series for the EU Member States and Candidate Countries and EFTA countries start generally from 1960 up to the latest available year. For other countries, the time series depend on national availability, but longer series may be available in the future.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measureTop

Absolute numbers and crude rates expressed per 1000 of the average population. For more information see the title and content of the datasets and tables.


5. Reference PeriodTop

The calendar year for all tables, with exception of the monthly time series on deaths, where the reference period is the month of occurrence.


6. Institutional MandateTop
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Data are collected on voluntary basis.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

The Joint demographic data collection is carried out in co-operation with the UNSD.


7. ConfidentialityTop
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policyTop
8.1. Release calendar

Not available.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of disseminationTop

Following the annual demographic data collections (see par. 15.1 Timeliness and 19.1 Revision policy).


10. Dissemination formatTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

On-line news releases.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Eurostat's general and cross-domains publications, yearbooks and pocketbooks.

'The social situation in the European Union' report and 'Demography report', in cooperation with DG-EMPL.

Two regular statistics in focus/data in focus publications on population and other demographic indicators:

- 'Population in Europe: first results': published in summer, containing the first demographic estimates on the demographic balance for the year T-1. The publication is based on the Rapid data collection.

- 'First demographic estimates' on the total population by country on 1 January of the following year (now casts), published at the end of the year.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free on-line database.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.


11. Accessibility of documentationTop
11.1. Documentation on methodology

Working paper 3/2003/E/n. 25 "Demographic statistics: Definitions and methods of collection in 31 European Countries".

11.2. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


12. Quality managementTop
12.1. Quality assurance

Data is validated before publishing in Eurostat's online free dissemination database.

See par. 20.4 Data validation.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

No quality assessment is available.


13. RelevanceTop
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Demographic trends and developments have a strong impact on the societies of the countries and of the EU. Demographic statistics on the size and structure of European Union's population are used in a wide range of economic, social and environmental policy areas.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user' satisfaction surveys are carried out.

13.3. Completeness

Data completeness depends on the availability of data from the National Statistical Institutes.


14. AccuracyTop
14.1. Accuracy - overall

Not applicable.

14.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


15. Timeliness and punctualityTop
15.1. Timeliness

Population estimates for year T and information on demographic events of year (T-1) at aggregate level is collected in spring of the year T; these data are disseminated around end of May of year T.

Detailed data by sex, age and other characteristics for population of year T and for the demographic events of year (T-1) are collected in summer of the year T; these data are disseminated around the end of the year T.

15.2. Punctuality

Not applicable.


16. ComparabilityTop
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Eurostat requests to all countries demographic statistics based on the concept of usual resident population. The statistics on population refer to the national and regional population at its usual residence. In accordance with this concept, the following persons are considered to be usually residents of the geographical area in question: those who have lived in their place of usual residence for a continuous period of at least 12 months before the reference date or those who arrived in their place of usual residence during the 12 months before the reference date with the intention of staying there for at least one year.

16.2. Comparability - over time

When a methodological change occurs in the process of measuring population and demographic events at national level, the flag b (break in series) is displayed.


17. CoherenceTop
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable.

17.2. Coherence - internal

Data are checked for internal consistency before dissemination. Corrections are also performed ex-post, if errors are found.


18. Cost and BurdenTop

Not relevant.


19. Data revisionTop
19.1. Data revision - policy

The data on demographic vital events are revised on a continuous base according to updates and revisions provided by the national statistical institutes. The aggregated geographical levels are updated accordingly.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Data from the Rapid data collection are usually provisional or estimated.

Data from the Joint data collection are final in most of the situations.

In both cases, the status of the data is clearly indicated by using flags (flag p = provisional data; flag e = estimated value; flag s = Eurostat estimate; flag f = forecasted data).


20. Statistical processingTop
20.1. Source data

Data are collected by Eurostat from the National Statistical Institutes and they are based on administrative data sources.

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual

20.3. Data collection

See Working paper 3/2003/E/n. 25 "Demographic statistics: Definitions and methods of collection in 31 European Countries".

20.4. Data validation

Absolute basic data received from the National Statistical Institutes are validated by Eurostat before being dissemination in Eurostat's free dissemination online database.

Basic validations are carried out to check if the totals provided by the countries are consistent with the breakdown by sex, by year of birth and by other characteristics.

Cross validations are carried out to check consistency between the different tables of one domain (e.g., the totals of deaths must be equal to the sum of deaths by months).

Time series analysis by country can be done to check if outliers appear.

When demographic indicators are calculated, any error detected in the time series by country is investigated with the national statistical institutes and data are corrected.

20.5. Data compilation

Eurostat calculates demographic indicators for all countries and all geographical aggregates using a common methodology. Geographical aggregates are estimated if a component geographical unit missing (which means, if not all countries that constitute the aggregate are available), but only the demographic indicator(s) for the aggregated geographical level is published in under a correspondent flag for estimation.

20.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


21. CommentTop

Not available.


Related metadataTop
demo_pop_esms - Population


AnnexesTop