Population (demo_pop)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. ContactTop
1.1. Contact organisationEurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unitF2: Population
1.5. Contact mail address2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata updateTop
2.1. Metadata last certified
2.2. Metadata last posted
2.3. Metadata last update


3. Statistical presentationTop
3.1. Data description

These metadata refer to the annual population data under Population / Demography domain in Eurostat's Dissemination data tree.

Eurostat carries on annual demography data collections with the aim of collecting from the National Statistical Institutes detailed data on population, vital events, marriages and divorces. These data are validated, processed and disseminated. Further on, Eurostat uses the collected detailed data to compute and disseminate demographic indicators at country level, at regional level and at EU level, by applying harmonized methods of calculation.

The demography data collections are done on voluntary basis and the completeness of information depends on the availability of data reported by the National Statistical Institutes.

The first demography data collection of each year, named Rapid, is carried out in April-May (deadline 15 May). Within this data collection the first results on the main demographic developments in the previous year (T-1) and the population on 1st January of the current year (T) are collected from the National Statistical Institutes.

A second annual data collection, Joint Demography data collection, is carried out in cooperation with United Nation Statistical Division (UNSD) in the summer of each year, having the deadline 15 September. Within this data collection Eurostat collects from the National Statistical Institutes detailed data on the demographic events (births, deaths, marriages and divorces) of the previous year (T-1) and the population on 1st January of the current year (T), broken down by sex, age and other characteristics.

The Nowcast Demography data collection is carried out in October-November (deadline 15 November). The monthly time series on births, deaths, immigrants and emigrants available from the beginning of current year (T) are collected, with the purpose of producing by the end of the current year (T) a forecast on 1st January population of the following year (T+1).

The Regional Demography data collection is carried out in November-December (deadline 15 December). It is based on the regional breakdown of the countries agreed at EU level using the latest version of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) and of the Statistical regions for the EFTA and Candidate countries. Within this data collection Eurostat collects from the National Statistical Institutes data by NUTS level 1, 2 and 3 for the vital events taking place in the previous year (T-1) and the population figures on 1st January of the current year (T).

Any updates sent by the National Statistical Institutes in-between data collections are validated, processed and disseminated in Eurostat's online database as soon as possible. The European aggregates and the demographic indicators are updated accordingly.

Please note:

The tables presenting population on 1 January figures by various breakdowns may display variations in the total population for some countries at a given moment in time. This may occur due to one of the following reasons:

- The timing of the transmission to Eurostat of the population data for various breakdown may lead to different population on 1 January figures displayed in different population tables at a given moment in time.

- The transmission to Eurostat of the post-census population revisions (following the 2011 population Censuses) is expected to be done by the national statistical offices gradually for the population breakdowns. The time series of populations between the previous census taking place in the country and 2011 will be revised by end 2013 by some of the countries, taking into account Eurostat’s recommendation.

The following countries have transmitted to Eurostat post-2011 Census population revisions, broken down by age and sex, by autumn of 2013, which are reflected in the tables ‘Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)’, ‘Population on 1 January by age and sex (demo_pjan)’, ‘Population on 1 January by five years age groups and sex (demo_pjangroup)’ and ‘Population on 1 January by broad age group and sex (demo_pjanbroad)’:

BG 2007-2011; CZ 2001-2011; EE 2000-2011; IE 2007-2011; EL 2011; ES 2002-2011; HR 2001-2011; CY 2003-2011; LV 2001-2011; LT 2001-2011; MT 2006-2011; AT 2008-2011; PT 1992-2011; RO 2002-2011; SK 2002-2011; UK 2002-2011 (not including post-2011 Census data for Scotland); ME 2010-2011; RS 2011.

As regards the the population data for the year 2012 and after, for most of the countries these take into account the results of the latest population census (held in 2011). IT 2012-2013 and DE 2012-2013 reported only the total post-2011 Census populations which are published in the table ‘Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)’. The breakdown by age and sex will follow later on.

- The succession of the annual demography data collections described above, which collect and update population breakdowns at different moment during the calendar year.

- The calendar of the national statistical offices for producing and releasing population broken down by various topics, respectively the timings when data are transmitted to Eurostat.

The most updated data on total population on 1st January and on the total number of live births and deaths may be found in the table 'Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)' of the online 'Database by theme'. This table includes the latest updates (or revised data) on total population, births and deaths reported by the countries, while the detailed breakdowns by various characteristics included in the rest of the tables of the Demography domain (and also for Population by citizenship and by country of birth) may be transmitted to Eurostat at a subsequent date.

3.2. Classification system

Not applicable

3.3. Coverage - sector

Not applicable

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Population on 1 January

Eurostat aims at collecting from the EU-27's Member States data on population on 1st January. The recommended definition is the 'usual resident population' and represents the number of inhabitants of a given area on 1st January of the year in question (or, in some cases, on 31st December of the previous year). However, the population transmitted by the countries can also be either based on data from the most recent census adjusted by the components of population change produced since the last census, either based on population registers.

 

Average population

The average population is calculated as the arithmetic mean of the population on 1st January of two consecutive years. The average population is further used in the calculation of demographic indicators, like the crude rates per 1000 inhabitants, and for several 'per capita' indicators.

 

Population change

The difference between the size of the population at the end and the beginning of the period Specifically, it is the difference in population size on 1 January of two consecutive years. A positive population change is also referred to as population growth. A negative population change is also referred to as population decline.

The population change consists of two components: natural change and net migration.

 

Natural change of population

The difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths during the year. A positive natural change, also known as natural increase, occurs when live births outnumber deaths. A negative natural change, also named as natural decrease, occurs when live births are less numerous than deaths.

 

Net migration plus statistical adjustment

Net migration is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. In the context of the annual demographic balance however, Eurostat produces net migration figures by taking the difference between total population change and natural change; this concept is referred to as net migration plus statistical adjustment. The statistics on 'net migration plus statistical adjustment' are therefore affected by all the statistical inaccuracies in the two components of this equation, especially population change. From one country to another 'net migration p statistical adjustment' may cover, besides the difference between inward and outward migration, other changes observed in the population figures between 1 January in two consecutive years which cannot be attributed to births, deaths, immigration and emigration.

  

Crude rates

A crude rate is calculated as the ratio of the number of events to the average population of the respective area in a given year. For easier presentation, it is multiplied by 1 000; the result is therefore expressed per 1 000 persons (of the average population).

  

Young age dependency ratio

The ratio of the persons aged 0-14 years old (1st variant) or 0-19 years old (2nd variant) divided by the number of persons conventionally considered of working age (respectively aged 15-64 (1st variant) or 20-59 years old (2nd variant)).

 

Old age dependency ratio

The ratio of the number of persons of an age when they are conventionally considered economically inactive (aged 65 years and over (1st variant) or 60 years and older (2nd variant) to the number of persons conventionally considered of working age (respectively aged 15-64 (1st variant) or 20-59 years old (2nd variant)).

 

The total age dependency ratio is the sum of the young and old age dependency ratios.

 

Median age of population

The age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older.

3.5. Statistical unit

Various statistical units: number of persons, of births or of deaths, age, share in total population, average population, rates,  etc. The statistical unit is deducted either from the title of tables, either from the title of indicators.

3.6. Statistical population

Total population

3.7. Reference area

Demographic statistics are disseminated by single country and for aggregates of countries, as follows:

a) the Member States of the European Union: Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden and United Kingdom.

b) the EU candidate countries: Iceland, Montenegro, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and Republic of Serbia.

c) the EFTA countries: Iceland (also an EU candidate country), Lichtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

d) other European countries, members of the Council of Europe: Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Moldova, Russian Federation, San Marino, Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244) and Ukraine.

e) The geographical aggregates European Union and the Euro Area, on which the dissemination covers at least the current and the previous version of their composition, the European Economic Area (EEA) and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

Notes by country:

  • FX stands for Metropolitan France, including Corsica, excluding the overseas departments (DOM). FR stands for the whole France, including the overseas departments (DOM).
  • These European geographical aggregates include FX until 1997 and FR from 1998 on. This change is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 1998.
  • The time series for Germany (DE_TOT) refer to the Federal Republic within its frontiers after 3 October 1990.
  • Starting from 1975, data for Cyprus (CY) refer to the government-controlled area.
  • Up to 2000, population data for Malta (MT) refer to the Maltese population only while, starting from 2001, figures include also foreign resident. This is indicated by a flag b (break in series) in the figures for 2001.
  • Since 2010, permanent resident population data of Switzerland (CH) includes all persons in the asylum process who have been residing in Switzerland since 12 months or more. The change appears in Eurostat population figures starting with population reported for 1.1.2011.
  • Starting with 1.1.2011, Belgium (BE) population figures at national level refer to all registered persons including asylum seekers.
  • Starting with 1.1.2012, the reported Estonian (EE) population includes the migration component, whereas this was not included before.
3.8. Coverage - Time

Time series for the EU (Member States and Candidate Countries) and EFTA countries start generally in 1960 and continue to the latest available reference year. For other countries, series depend on national availability, but longer series may be available in the future.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable.


4. Unit of measureTop

Population figures are disseminated in number of persons, but also as shares of various age groups in total population (see dataset on population structure indicators).

Crude rates are expressed as ‘change per 1000 persons’ (of the average population).


5. Reference PeriodTop

The population figures refer to 1st January (as specified in the title of the table) or to the calendar year for the average population.


6. Institutional MandateTop
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

Data are collected on voluntary basis.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

The Joint data collection is done in co-operation with the UNSD.


7. ConfidentialityTop
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Not applicable.


8. Release policyTop
8.1. Release calendar

Not available.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not available.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of disseminationTop

Several times per year (see par. 15.1 Timeliness and 19.2 Revision practice).


10. Dissemination formatTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Statistics Explained articles on Eurostat website

Eurostat Yearbook

Regional Yearbook

 

Domain specific publications 

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurostat’s Data Navigation Tree.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

Not applicable.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Not applicable.


11. Accessibility of documentationTop
11.1. Documentation on methodology

The following methodological papers are listed in Eurostat’s Publications list, to be considered with reserve as regards the possible updates of the particularities by country which might have occurred since the publication date:

  • Working paper 3/2003/E/n. 25 "Demographic statistics: Definitions and methods of collection in 31 European Countries".
  • Working paper 3/2003/E/n. 27 "Basic methodology for the recalculation of intercensal population estimates".
11.2. Quality management - documentation

Not available.


12. Quality managementTop
12.1. Quality assurance

Not available.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

Data are validated before published in Eurostat online database. See par. 20.4 Data validation.

No quality assessment is available.


13. RelevanceTop
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

The demographic statistics disseminated by Eurostat are addressed to policy makers, researchers, media and the large public.

 

Official statistics on the total population in the EU are of key importance for the Union institutions and for the Member States. The demographic data are an essential input for analysis and policy making relevant to strategic debates, including the allocation of Structural Funds and Cohesion Policy tools, the calculation of population projections as a primary input for assessing long-term sustainability of public finances, and monitoring the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Total population figures also play an essential role in the rules for Qualified Majority Voting in the Council.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user' satisfaction surveys are carried out.

13.3. Completeness

Data and indicator's completeness depends on the availability of data transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes.


14. AccuracyTop
14.1. Accuracy - overall

Not applicable.

14.2. Sampling error

Not applicable.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable.


15. Timeliness and punctualityTop
15.1. Timeliness

The results of the three annual demographic data collections at country level are usually disseminated in Eurostat's Data Navigation Tree at the following dates:

  • ‘Rapid’ data collections: end-May - beginning-June
  • ‘Joint’ data collection: October - November
  • ‘Nowcast’ data collection: December

For more information on Regional demography data collection see Demography - Regional data (demoreg_esms).

Data may be revised, appended or corrected whenever the data providers retransmit the respective data to Eurostat.

15.2. Punctuality

Not applicable.


16. ComparabilityTop
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Eurostat aims to collect data from EU Member States in relation to populations as of 1 January each year. The recommended definition is the 'usual resident population' and represents the number of inhabitants of a given area on 1 January of the year in question (or, in some cases, on 31 December of the previous year). In accordance with the United Nations international recommendations, the definition of the 'usual residence' is based on a 12 month reference period, in other words, those included should have lived in their place of usual residence for a continuous period of at least 12 months before the reference date, or arrived in their place of usual residence during the 12 months before the reference date with the intention of staying there for at least one year. However, countries may report to Eurostat population figures based on data from their most recent census, adjusted by the components of population change that have been produced since the last census, or alternatively population figures that are based on the registered/legal population.

16.2. Comparability - over time

For most of the countries, the population data for the year 2011 and after take into account the results of the latest population census (held in 2011). The time series of populations between the previous census and 2011 will be revised by end 2013 by some of the countries, taking into account Eurostat’s recommendation. The comparison of populations between a pre-census and a post-census year may result in differences partially explained by the changes in the population structure and partially explained by the lack of revision of the pre-census population data.

 

The following countries have transmitted to Eurostat post-2011 Census population revisions by autumn of 2013, which are reflected in the tables ‘Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)’, ‘Population on 1 January by age and sex (demo_pjan)’, ‘Population on 1 January by five years age groups and sex (demo_pjangroup)’ and ‘Population on 1 January by broad age group and sex (demo_pjanbroad)’:

BG 2007-2011; CZ 2001-2011; EE 2000-2011; IE 2007-2011; EL 2011; ES 2002-2011; CY 2003-2011; LV 2001-2011; LT 2001-2011; MT 2006-2011; AT 2008-2011; PT 1992-2011; RO 2002-2011; SK 2002-2011; UK 2002-2011 (not including post-2011 Census data for Scotland).

The breaks in population series due to the succession of a pre and post census reference year or due to any methodological change in population counts reported by the countries are documented in Eurostat’s database with the flag b (break in series).


17. CoherenceTop
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

The population figures transmitted by the national statistical offices to Eurostat in the framework of Demography domain may differ from those available in National Accounts, Labour Force Survey or in the survey on Income and Living Conditions. The difference is given by the population coverage (see metadata specific to each domain).

17.2. Coherence - internal

The tables presenting population on 1 January by various breakdowns may display variations in between them as regards the total population for some countries at a given moment in time. This is due to the national calendar of data production and release, respectively due to different calendar dates when data are transmitted to Eurostat, and also due to the succession of the annual demography data collections which collect and update population breakdowns at different moment during the calendar year.

The most updated data on total population on 1st January and on the total number of live births and deaths can be found in the table 'Demographic balance and crude rates (demo_gind)' of the online 'Database by theme'. This table includes the latest updates (or revised data) on total population, births and deaths reported by the countries, while the detailed breakdowns by various characteristics included in the rest of the tables of the Demography domain (and also for 'Population by citizenship and by country of birth') may be transmitted to Eurostat at a subsequent date.


18. Cost and BurdenTop

Not relevant.


19. Data revisionTop
19.1. Data revision - policy

Not available.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Population statistics are revised on a continuous base according to the most recent updated data released and transmitted to Eurostat by the National Statistical Institutes. The geographical aggregates and the demographic indicators are accordingly revised as necessary.

 

The status of the data is indicated by using flags (flag p = provisional data; flag e = estimated; flag b = break in time series; flag f = forecast; flag z = not applicable).


20. Statistical processingTop
20.1. Source data

Deatiled demographic data are collected by Eurostat from the National Statistical Institutes.

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Annual.

20.3. Data collection

The annual demography data collections at country level are carried out by Eurostat from the National Statistical Institutes in order to collect detailed updated demographic data. The demographic data collections are carried out on voluntary basis.

20.4. Data validation

Basic controls are carried out on the absolute figures reported by the NSIs to check if the total of a variable is consistent with the breakdown by sex, by year and by other characteristics (e.g., live births are the sum of births inside marriage plus births outside marriage; total population is equal to the sum of marital statuses, etc.). Cross validations are carried out to check consistency between the different breakdowns of the same variable (e.g., the total of births must be equal to the sum of births by rank, by mother's educational attainment, etc.).

Based on the detailed collected data, Eurostat is computing a series of demographic indicators. The regular calculated demographic indicators are further submitted to several validations concerning the most updated annual value but also the available time series. These validations include check on the plausibility of the most updated annual value, checks on two consecutive annual values, checks by using standard deviation and checks by using weighted average as for example for breakdowns of the life expectancy by educational attainment.

20.5. Data compilation

Based on the national detailed figures on population and other demographic events transmitted by the National Statistical Institutes, Eurostat derives/calculates demographic variables, demographic indicators and geographical aggregates by applying common calculation method.

 

Derived data by age and by year of birth, respectively by duration of marriage

Detailed demographic statistics cross tabulated by age and by year of birth, respectively by duration of marriage and by year of marriage are collected from the national statistical institutes during demography data collections. Once in Eurostat demography database, these are further compiled into data by age (or age in completed years of life) and data by year of birth (or by age in reached years of life at the date of the demographic event).

Derived data for age groups

The detailed data collected during demography data collections are aggregated by various age groups in the demography database. These may serve one or more of the following purposes: dissemination requirements, reaching a level of comparability when different availability by age is reported by the countries, and serving for the calculation of demographic indicators.

Calculation of demographic indicators

- annual demographic balance: population change by component, in number of persons and crude rates

- population structure indicators: share of various age groups in total population, age dependency ratios, median age of population, share in EU-27 total population, etc.

- fertility indicators: crude birth rate, fertility rates by mother's age, mean age of women at childbirth, mean age of women at first childbirth, share of live births outside marriage

- mortality indicators: crude death rate, life table, life expectancies by age and sex, life expectancies by age, sex and educational attainment

- infant mortality rate, early neonatal mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate, late foetal mortality rate

- marriage and divorce crude rates, mean age at first marriage, total marriage rate

Geographical aggregation

For the demographic variables expressed in number, the arithmetical aggregation is applied in cases without missing values among the geographic components.

For all demographic indicators expressed as rates, crude rates or shares, the geographic aggregates are calculated by applying the same method applied to an individual country using as input the already aggregated variables expressed in numbers.

20.6. Adjustment

Not applicable.


21. CommentTop

Not applicable.


Related metadataTop


AnnexesTop