Energy statistics - prices (nrg_price)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. ContactTop
1.1. Contact organisationEurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unitE5: Energy
1.5. Contact mail address2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata updateTop
2.1. Metadata last certified04/02/2011
2.2. Metadata last posted04/02/2011
2.3. Metadata last update04/02/2011


3. Statistical presentationTop
3.1. Data description

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Average half-yearly electricity and natural gas prices for households and industrial end-users.
The end-users are characterised by predefined annual consumption bands.

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Electricity and natural gas prices for households and industrial standard consumers, valid on 1 January and on 1 July of each calendar year.  Standard consumers are characterised by predefined annual consumption.

The prices include electricity/gas basic price, transmission, system services, meter rental, distribution and other services.

The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation:

- prices excluding taxes and levies;

- prices excluding VAT and other recoverable taxes;

- prices including all taxes, levies and VAT.

 

For structural indicators tables, where only annual data is displayed both for new and old methodology in the same table, the prices refer to the price on 1st January of each year (until 2007) and to the first semester of each year (2008 and later).

3.2. Classification system

Eurostat provides model questionnaires to all data providers that cover the following areas:

- Gas prices for the households sector;

- Gas prices for the industrial sector;

- Electricity prices for the households sector;

- Electricity prices for the industrial sector.

3.3. Coverage - sector

Gas and electricity prices are collected for the 2 following areas:

- Industrial end-users;

- Household end-users.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Reference consumers for gas and electricity are characterised by the following annual consumption bands:

 

Electricity households:

Da (Very small): annual consumption below 1 000 kWh

Db (Small): annual consumption between 1 000 and 2 500 kWh

Dc (Medium): annual consumption between 2 500 and 5 000 kWh

Dd (Large): annual consumption between 5 000 and 15 000 kWh

De (Very large): annual consumption above 15000 kWh

 

Electricity industry:

Ia: annual consumption below 20 MWh

Ib: annual consumption between 20 and 500 MWh

Ic: annual consumption between 500 and 2 000 MWh

Id: annual consumption between 2 000 and 20 000 MWh

Ie: annual consumption between 20 000 and 70 000 MWh

If: annual consumption between 70 000 and 150 000 MWh

Ig: annual consumption above 150 000 MWh

 

Natural gas households:

D1 (Small): annual consumption below 20 GJ

D2 (Medium): annual consumption between 20 and 200 GJ

D3 (Large): annual consumption above 200 GJ

 

Natural gas industry:

I1: annual consumption below 1 000 GJ

I2: annual consumption between 1 000 and 10 000 GJ

I3: annual consumption between 10 000 and 100 000 GJ

I4: annual consumption between 100 000 and 1 000 000 GJ

I5: annual consumption between 1 000 000 and 4 000 000 GJ

I6: annual consumption above 4 000 000 GJ

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Reference consumers for gas and electricity are characterised by the following annual consumption.

Electricity households:

Da: annual consumption of 600 kWh (standard dwelling of 50m²)
Db: annual consumption of 1 200 kWh (standard dwelling of 70m²)
Dc: annual consumption of 3 500 kWh among which 1 300 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 90m²)
Dd: annual consumption of 7 500 kWh among which 2 500 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 100m²)
De: annual consumption of 20 000 kWh among which 15 000 kWh overnight (standard dwelling of 120m²)

Electricity industry:

Ia: annual consumption of 30 MWh, maximum demand of 30W and annual load of 1 000 hours

Ib: annual consumption of 50 MWh, maximum demand of 50kW and annual load of 1 000 hours

Ic: annual consumption of 160 MWh, maximum demand of 100kW and annual load of 1 600 hours

Id: annual consumption of 1 250 MWh, maximum demand of 500kW and annual load of 2 500 hours

Ie: annual consumption of 2 000 MWh, maximum demand of 500kW and annual load of 4 000 hours

If: annual consumption of 10 000 MWh, maximum demand of 2 500kW and annual load of 4 000 hours

Ig: annual consumption of 24 000 MWh, maximum demand of 4 000kW and annual load of 6 000 hours

Ih: annual consumption of 50 000 MWh, maximum demand of 10 000kW and annual load of 5 000 hours

Ii: annual consumption of 70 000 MWh, maximum demand of 10 000kW and annual load of 7 000 hours

Natural gas households:

D1: annual consumption of 8.37 GJ (equipment: cooking and water heating)
D2: annual consumption of 16.74 GJ (equipment: cooking and water heating)
D3: annual consumption of 83.7 GJ (equipment: cooking, water heating and central heating)
D3-b: annual consumption of 125.60 GJ (equipment: cooking, water heating and central heating)
D4: annual consumption of 1 047.00 GJ (equipment: block central heating for at least 10 dwelling)
For the United Kingdom, there is an additional standard consumer D2-b, annual consumption 33.49 GJ

Natural gas industry:

I1: annual consumption of 418.6 GJ, no load factor, but if necessary 115-120 days
I2: annual consumption of 4 186 GJ, and load factor of 200 days
I3-1: annual consumption of 41 860 GJ, and load factor of 200 days (1 600 hours)
I3-2: annual consumption of 41 860 GJ, and load factor of 250 days (4 000 hours)
I4-1: annual consumption of 418 600 GJ, and load factor of 250 days (4 000 hours)
I4-2: annual consumption of 418 600 GJ, and load factor of 330 days (8 000 hours)
I5: annual consumption of 4 186 000 GJ, and load factor of 330 days (8 000 hours)

3.5. Statistical unit

Industry and households

3.6. Statistical population

Member States must ensure that a representative share of the national market is covered by the survey.

3.7. Reference area

Gas and electricity prices are presented at national level for EU Member States, several candidate countries and Norway.

Before 2005 when data was collected using the old methodology, regional data is available for several countries (Germany, France, United Kingdom).

3.8. Coverage - Time

The full set of price data that was collected with a new methodology is available from the second semester 2007 onwards.

 

From 1985 until 2007, price data is available that was collected with the old methodology.

3.9. Base period

Not applicable


4. Unit of measureTop

Electricity prices:

Euro / kWh

National currency / kWh for non-Euro countries

Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) / kWh

 

Natural gas prices:

Euro / GJ (Giga Joule = one Joule x 10exp9)

National currency / GJ for non-Euro countries

Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) / GJ


5. Reference PeriodTop

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
The published data are average prices over a period over 6 months.
Semester 1 prices are average prices between January and June of each year, semester 2 prices are average prices between July and December of each year.
In case of annual data (e.g. at the structural indicators tables), the price is taken for the first semester of each calender year.

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Price data are taken at 1 January and 1 July of each year, or in case of annual data, the price is taken at 1st January of each calender year.


6. Institutional MandateTop
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)

Commission Decision 2007/394/EC of 7 June 2007 amending Council Directive 90/377/EEC with regard to the methodology to be applied for the collection of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users.

 

Directive 2008/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users (recast)

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Council Directive 90/377/EEC of 29 June 1990 concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users.

 

Gas and electricity prices for household end-users are collected on a voluntary basis (applicable both for old and new methodology)

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

None


7. ConfidentialityTop
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

Eurostat does not disclose data which might be by their nature subject to commercial confidentiality.

Such confidential data that is transmitted by the Member States to Eurostat shall only be accessible to Eurostat officials. The confidential price data may however be used for statistical purposes. This provision shall not prevent the publication of such data in an aggregated form, which does not enable individual commercial transaction to be identified.


8. Release policyTop
8.1. Release calendar

None

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of disseminationTop

Half-yearly.

Tables in structural indicators domain contain annual data.


10. Dissemination formatTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

Data is disseminated in the form of Statistics Explained articles every 6 months for the main consumer types for natural gas and electricity. The full scope of all prices for all consumption bands is available from Eurobase. 

Gas and electricity price data are included in an annual pocketbook Energy, Transport and Environment Indicators.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

No micro data available.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

Disaggregated data for the production and network costs is also collected by Eurostat, and this data set will be made available to the public in Eurobase before July 2013.


11. Accessibility of documentationTop
11.1. Documentation on methodology

NEW METHODOLOGY
The methodology for industrial end-users is described in Annex I (natural gas prices) and in Annex II (electricity prices) of Commission Decision 2007/394/CE (Official Journal L 148 09.6.2007).

OLD METHODOLOGY
The methodology is described in Annex 1 and 2 of the Council Directive 90/377/EEC of 29 June 1990 concerning a Community procedure to improve the transparency of gas and electricity prices charged to industrial end-users.

Eurostat provides model questionnaires on which the surveys are based.

11.2. Quality management - documentation
None


12. Quality managementTop
12.1. Quality assurance

A Self-Assessment report on the process of the gas and electricity price collection  was drafted in 2008.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

As the methodology for the data collection of gas and electricity prices is well defined, the data set provides price information that is comparable between countries.

However, the reader should be aware, that whenever gas or electricity prices in Euro for non-Euro countries are compared in time, the effects of differences in exchange rates are also taken into account.


13. RelevanceTop
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Users mainly need details about  household gas and electricity prices.

Main users of this data set are:

- Other Commission services (TREN, SANCO, ECFIN);

- National public organisations (NSI's, Ministries, Energy Agencies);

- Financial annalists in the energy sector;

- Gas and electricity companies;

- Universities/students.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

No user satisfaction survey has been carried out for this dataset.

13.3. Completeness

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Electricity-prices

Data sets are complete with the exception of Italian electricity prices for 2008.

Dutch electricity prices for household consumer band Da (consumption band below 1000 kWh/year) are not applicable, as a special annual refund per connection would result in unrealistic national prices for this band.

For large industrial end-users (band If), prices are not applicable for Malta and Luxembourg, and not available for Ireland (confidential). Prices for Band Ig (annual consumption above 150 000 MWh) are not available for a few countries, as the price data for this band is declared on a voluntary basis.

Austria did not provide electricity prices for industrial consumers.

 

Natural gas-prices

Due to limited size of the natural gas markets in Finland (households), Cyprus, Malta and Greece, data for these countries is not or only partially available.

For the other countries, the data sets are complete with the exception of Danish (household and industrial).

Austria did not provide electricity prices for industrial consumers.

Prices for large industrial end-users (band I5) are not applicable for Luxembourg, and confidential for Ireland and Slovenia.

Prices for Band I6 (annual consumption above 4 000 000 GJ are not available for a few countries, as the price data for this band is declared on a voluntary basis.

Due to missing data for several countries. EU aggregates are not available for large consumer bands I5 and I6.

 

 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Electricity-prices
Data sets for standard consumers are complete with the exception of:
- Denmark: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers If/Ig/Ih/Ii;
- France: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers Ih + Ii;
- Slovenia: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers Ih + Ii;
- Luxembourg: industrial electricity prices not available for standard consumers If/Ig/Ih/Ii (confidential);
- Italy: household electricity prices not available for standard consumer De.

Natural gas-prices
Due to the limited size of the natural gas markets in Cyprus, Malta, Finland (households) and Greece, data for these countries is not or only partially available.

Data sets for the other EU Member States are complete with the exception of prices for very large industrial gas consumers (consumer type I5) where 9 EU Member States did not provide these prices as these prices are not applicable or not available.

Price dataset for the largest domestic standard consumer D4 for Ireland: not available.


14. AccuracyTop
14.1. Accuracy - overall

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
The published prices are based on real invoiced prices that are paid by end-users

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
The published prices are based on tariffs

14.2. Sampling error

Not applicable

14.3. Non-sampling error

Not applicable


15. Timeliness and punctualityTop
15.1. Timeliness

Price data is generally delivered to Eurostat 3-4 months after the reference period.

15.2. Punctuality

About 50% of the price data arrives within 2 months after the reference period.

Another 40% arrives between 3 and 4 months after the reference period.

Remaining 10% of data arrives 5 months after the reference period.

The price data is available within 3 working days in the New Cronos database, and the statistics explained section is updated about 6 months after the reference period.


16. ComparabilityTop
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Good comparability as a unique methodology is in place that describes the collection of gas and electricity prices.

16.2. Comparability - over time

From 2007 second semester onwards, prices are reported with a new methodology as defined in Commission Decision 2007/394/EC.

For prices that were collected before this time a different methodology was in place.

Comparing the new methodology prices with old methodology prices is possible, but the reader should be aware, that not only standard reference consumers were replaced with standard bands, but also that the data collection with the new methodology is done on real price data while the old methodology was often performed on tariff price data.


17. CoherenceTop
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

Not applicable

17.2. Coherence - internal

Not applicable


18. Cost and BurdenTop

On national level: unknown

At Eurostat level: 6 person-months / year


19. Data revisionTop
19.1. Data revision - policy

In case, only provisional national price data is available, this data is earmarked with a "p" (provisional). This provisional data is used for calculating (provisional) EU aggregates.

As soon as definitive data is available, both the final national data as well as final corrected aggregated data is introduced in the New Cronos database.

The EU aggregated prices are updated twice per year, on the first wednesday after the 15th of May and on the first wednesday after the 15th of November.

19.2. Data revision - practice

Incoming data is validated by Eurostat, by checking the price data on consistency and completeness.

In case of abnormal increases or decreases, the reporting organisation will be requested to reconfirm the data.

In practice, between 1-3 Member States report price-corrections (per dataset).

These corrections might be due to the availability of final data instead of provisional data, or due to corrective measures.

The prices are not seasonally adjusted.


20. Statistical processingTop
20.1. Source data

Gas and electricity price data is reported by National Statistical Institutes, Ministries, Energy Agencies, or in case of monopolies by single gas and electricity companies.

The prices include electricity/gas basic price, transmission, system services, distribution and other services.

The prices are collected and published considering three levels of taxation:

- prices excluding taxes and levies;

- prices excluding VAT and other recoverable taxes;

- prices including all taxes, levies and VAT.

EU aggregates are calculated by weighting the national prices with the latest available national consumption for either the household sector or the industrial sector.

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Half yearly

20.3. Data collection

Price Data for electricity and natural gas is collected by the reporting authorities of the States from suppliers. This micro data is then aggregated by the reporting authorities to national average prices. States must ensure that the sample is sufficient large to ensure that a representative national price is achieved. The coverage varies from country to country and can be 100% for small countries where only one supplier for electricity or natural gas dominates the national market to a significant lower coverage for those countries were many suppliers are on the market.

20.4. Data validation

National input data is validated by Eurostat  for consistency and completeness.

In case of inconsistent price data, the data providers are contacted to request a reconfirmation of the data.

20.5. Data compilation

Member states must report national prices that are representative for the whole country.
These national prices will represent weighted average prices, using the market shares of gas or electricity supply undertakings surveyed as weighting factors. Arithmetic average prices will be provided only when weighted figures cannot be calculated.

EU aggregates are calculated, once the price data set is complete.

In case of missing or delayed data, the HICP indicator for the given field is used to estimate the missing prices applying the HICP coefficient to the latest available price. These national estimated prices are however not published and are only used for the calculation of the aggregates.

20.6. Adjustment

Adjustments are made twice per year for the EU aggregates in order to use updated consumption data for weighting the price data. These adjustments are applied each year on the first Wednesday after the 15th of May (e.g. in May 2011, the consumption data is available for 2009, and the final EU aggregates will be recalculated with the final consumption data for 2009).

Datasets that were collected with the old methodology (pre 2007) are not subject to any corrections anymore.


21. CommentTop

NEW METHODOLOGY (from 2007 onwards)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rate for quarter 1 and 2 (for semester 1 price data) and as the average rate for quarter 3 and 4 (for semester 2 data). 

OLD METHODOLOGY (until 2007)
Exchange rates to convert non-euro prices to euro-prices are taken as the average exchange rates for January and July.


Related metadataTop


AnnexesTop