Daily calorie supply per capita by source (t2020_rk100)

Indicator Profile (ESMS)

Data tables : t2020_rk100

Compiling agency: Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4. Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)
Eurostat Quality Profile
14.1. Accuracy - overallnot available
16.1. Comparability - geographicalLow
16.2. Comparability - over timeHigh
20.1. Source dataFAO

Description of Eurostat quality grading system under the following link.



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. ContactTop
1.1. Contact organisationStatistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)
1.2. Contact organisation unitE2: Environmental statistics and accounts; sustainable development
1.5. Contact mail address2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata updateTop
2.1. Metadata last certified18/09/2013
2.2. Metadata last posted20/11/2013
2.3. Metadata last update18/09/2013


3. Statistical presentationTop
3.1. Data description

This indicator shows the per capita supply of total calories and the split between calories from animal and vegetal products. It is not to be confused with the per capita consumption as it includes losses through distribution and food preparation.
The food and drink value chain in the EU causes 17% of our direct greenhouse gas emissions and 28% of material resource use. Our consumption patterns have a global impact, in particular related to the consumption of animal products. Animal calorie production is particularly inefficient compared to that of vegetable calories as large parts of the calories fed to the livestock is needed for maintaining living functions and used for the production of non-eatable body parts, e.g. bones. Moreover, it is a major user of high-quality water. In the EU alone, we waste 90 million tonnes of food every year or 180 kg per person. Much of this is food, which is still suitable for human consumption.
The food supply and population data are based on the food balance sheets available at FAOSTAT and are based on data gathered by FAO Questionnaires (tailored questionnaires, sent to member countries of FAO).

The indicator is published by Eurostat as a resource efficiency indicator (t2020_rk100). It is included in the Resource Efficiency Scoreboard for the assessment of progress towards the objectives and targets of the Europe 2020 flagship initiative on Resource Efficiency.

t2020_rk100´s table within the Europe 2020 set: Eurobase > Tables on EU policy > Europe 2020 Indicators > Resource efficiency > Key areas > Addressing food > Total daily calorie supply per capita (t2020_rk100)

3.2. Classification system
Classification in DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses): Driving forces
3.3. Coverage - sector
Not available
3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions
Not available
3.5. Statistical unit
Not available
3.6. Statistical population
All major food items are regarded.
In the vegetal products section: alcoholic beverages, cereals, fruits, miscellaneous, oil crops, pulses, spices, starchy roots, stimulants, sugar & sweeteners, sugar crops, treenuts, vegetable oils, vegetables, other vegetal products.
In the animal products section: animal fats, aquatic products, eggs, fish, seafood, meat, milk, offal, other animal products.
Concerning population, the total population during the reference period usually refers to de facto population, which are residents and non-residents. However, for many countries, this figure may also be subject to either incomplete or unreliable data and may refer to resident population only .In this case, non-resident population, such as illegal immigrants, tourists, refugees, foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents, foreign armed forces, etc., are not included. This omission may constitute a considerable part in some countries and does therefore understate the total partaking population.
3.7. Reference area
EU-28
3.8. Coverage - Time
Earliest reference year displayed at Eurostat: 2000
Earliest reference year available at FAO: 1961
Latest reference year available: 2009
3.9. Base period
Not applicable


4. Unit of measureTop
Kcal per capita and day


5. Reference PeriodTop
The reference period is the calendar year.


6. Institutional MandateTop
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements
Not available
6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing
Data sources for the FAO statistical division are primarily gathered by FAO Questionnaires (tailored questionnaires, sent to member countries of FAO), National publications available in the ESS Library and Country visits by ESS statisticians involving discussions with national experts.


7. ConfidentialityTop
7.1. Confidentiality - policy
Data is publicly available.
7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment
Not applicable


8. Release policyTop
8.1. Release calendar
The data on 2011 will be published on June 30th 2014.
8.2. Release calendar access
Release calender
8.3. Release policy - user access
In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat´s website (see item 10 - ´Dissemination format´) respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of disseminationTop
Periodicity: Annual, available two years after the reference period


10. Dissemination formatTop
10.1. Dissemination format - News release
News releases on-line.
10.2. Dissemination format - Publications
Food balance sheets - a Handbook
FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013
10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Eurostat Eurobase data table
Eurostat Eurobase graph
Eurostat Eurobase map

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access
Not available
10.5. Dissemination format - other
Not available


11. Accessibility of documentationTop
11.1. Documentation on methodology
Food balance sheets A handbook, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2001, Rome
11.2. Quality management - documentation
See 11.1See 11.1


12. Quality managementTop
12.1. Quality assurance
The quality assurance is a joint responsibility of the Member States and FAO. Data are checked before being uploaded into the database and disseminated to the public. The validation rules are established to ensure the data consistency and the year to year comparability of the indicator.
12.2. Quality management - assessment
Not available


13. RelevanceTop
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

Key policy question:
Has the resource input for the supply of daily calories per capita been reduced?
Key message:
An increasing obesity problem in the EU is evidence of over-consumption in terms of dietary energy compared to the physical activity. Anyhow, the average calorie supply in EU in 2009 of 3,456kcal/day and capita taking into account the losses until final consumption of the products, which make usually about 20% of the supply is not exceeding by much the recommended calorie intake of in average 2,000-3,500 kcal/capita and day (depending on age, gender and activity level) and has remained constant over the last years.
Rationale:
The Europe 2020 Strategy - A resource-efficient Europe calls for an increase in resource efficiency, to: "…find new ways to reduce inputs, minimise waste, improve management of resource stocks, change consumption patterns, optimise production processes, management and business methods, and improve logistics."
The Roadmap to a Resource-Efficient Europe follows up on this, and stresses that our natural resource base is being eroded by growing global demand, highlighting the food sector as priority area for taking action - calling for: "…incentives for healthier and more sustainable production and consumption of food and to halve the disposal of edible food waste in the EU by 2020."
As a milestone by 2020 the Roadmap stipulates: incentives to healthier and more sustainable food production and consumption will be widespread and will have driven a 20% reduction in the food chain´s resource inputs. Disposal of edible food waste should have been halved in the EU.
The Roadmap states that the Commission will assess how best to limit waste throughout the food supply chain, and consider ways to lower the environmental impact of food production and consumption patterns, via a Communication on Sustainable Food, in 2013.
Additionally this indicator is connected to the target of reducing EU greenhouse gas emissions by 95% by 2050, as the agricultural sector and especially livestock farming is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction
No systematic user satisfaction surveys have been conducted.
13.3. Completeness

Data is complete for the Member States.

See data availability for table t2020_rk100

Data is complete for the Member States.

See data availability for table t2020_rk100


14. AccuracyTop
14.1. Accuracy - overall

not available

Data on calorie supply is submitted annually via FAO tailored questionnaires or gathered using national publications. Production and trade data from national official statistics are based either on direct enquiries or records or are estimated by Government agencies. The basic data are thus based on a large variety of sources and are subject to inconsistency. The accuracy of the basic data depends on the quality of the national statistical systems and may vary from country to country. Adjustments and estimation/imputation of the missing data are necessary.
Data obtained through household and food consumption surveys provide more information on food consumption than Food Balance Sheets (FBS) do from a food supply perspective However, in the absence of a comprehensive international data set from household surveys, the FBS represent the only source of standardized data that permit international comparisons over time.
Conceptual problems of the FBS are, e.g.:
   - manufacturing surveys may cover only a certain size of industrial establishment;
   - information on commercial stocks may be available from official or marketing authorities, factories, wholesalers and retailers, but inventories of catering establishments, institutions and households may not be available;
   - information on waste in industrial processing may be available, but waste/losses during storage, transportation or on quantities intentionally discarded for the purpose of price control or epidemic disease control may not be available;
   - production statistics may not be available for all commodities needed;
   - non-resident populations of the countries, such as illegal immigrants, tourists, refugees, foreign diplomatic personnel, foreign armed forces, etc. are not included;
   - non-commercial or subsistence production are usually not included, which might me an appreciable part of total production in some countries.
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)

14.2. Sampling error
Not available
14.3. Non-sampling error
Not available


15. Timeliness and punctualityTop
15.1. Timeliness
The delay between reference period and the publication of the indicator is 2 years.
15.2. Punctuality
Not available


16. ComparabilityTop
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Low

Production and trade data from national official statistics are based either on direct enquiries or records or are estimated by Government agencies. Stock changes are reported by marketing authorities and factories or are collected through farmer stock surveys. Since basic data are obtained from different sources per country they are subject to inconsistency, furthermore they are often incomplete or unreliable. Adjustments and estimation/imputation of the missing data are necessary.
See also 14.1. Overall accuracy
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)
16.2. Comparability - over time

High

FAO collects data from 1961 on without any breaks in time series. Since basic data are obtained from different sources they are subject to inconsistency, furthermore they are often incomplete or unreliable. FAO compares statistical aggregates against all available supplementary information and thus guaranties highest possible comparability over time for each country.
See also 14.1. Overall accuracy
(See the description of Eurostat quality grades)


17. CoherenceTop
17.1. Coherence - cross domain
Not available
17.2. Coherence - internal
Not available


18. Cost and BurdenTop
The indicator applies the concept of multiple use of statistics with no additional cost or burden for Member States or businesses.


19. Data revisionTop
19.1. Data revision - policy
Not available
19.2. Data revision - practice
Not available


20. Statistical processingTop
20.1. Source data

FAO

Data set 1: Total daily calorie supply per capita
Data set provider: FAO based on Food Balance Sheets from covered countries
Link to the data source: Food Balance Sheets
Indicators table at FAO: ( Crops Primary Equivalent ( Regions ( European Union> (List) ( Food supply (kcal/capita/day) ( Grand total + (Total) ( the year/s of interest

20.2. Frequency of data collection
Annually.
20.3. Data collection
Data gathered by:
Primarily, FAO Questionnaires (tailored questionnaires, sent to member countries of FAO),
National publications available in the ESS Library (3700 title, including general yearbooks, agricultural yearbooks, pocket yearbooks; periodicals; early warning system correspondents´ reports; FAO Country Representatives´ reports)
Country visits by ESS statisticians involving discussions with national experts
20.4. Data validation
FAO validates by comparing statistical aggregates against all available supplementary information.
20.5. Data compilation
Supply: The total quantity of foodstuffs produced in a country added to the total quantity imported and adjusted to any change in stocks that may have occurred since the beginning of the reference period.
Data on per capita food supply: are expressed in terms of quantity and by applying appropriate food composition factors for all primary and processed products also in terms of dietary energy value, protein and fat content. The per caput figure is obtained by dividing the figure for food available by the total population partaking of it during the reference period, i.e. refers to de facto population.
20.6. Adjustment
Since basic data are obtained from different sources they are subject to inconsistency, furthermore they are often incomplete or unreliable. Adjustment to the basic data and estimation/imputation of the missing data by FAO are necessary in order to maintain a certain degree of consistency, completeness and reliability of the resulting food balance sheets. In some cases the exercise has to be based also on other external sources.


21. CommentTop

References:
Food balance sheets A handbook, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2001, Rome
Assessment of resource efficiency in the food cycle, DG-Environment - European Commission, 2012

Copyrights:
Eurostat Copyright/License Policy is applicable.
FAO terms of condition


Related metadataTop


AnnexesTop