Lifelong learning (trng)

Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)

Compiling agency: Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union


Eurostat metadata
Reference metadata
1. Contact
2. Metadata update
3. Statistical presentation
4.Unit of measure
5. Reference Period
6. Institutional Mandate
7. Confidentiality
8. Release policy
9. Frequency of dissemination
10. Dissemination format
11. Accessibility of documentation
12. Quality management
13. Relevance
14. Accuracy
15. Timeliness and punctuality
16. Comparability
17. Coherence
18. Cost and Burden
19. Data revision
20. Statistical processing
21. Comment
Related Metadata
Annexes (including footnotes)



For any question on data and metadata, please contact: EUROPEAN STATISTICAL DATA SUPPORT

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1. Contact Top
1.1. Contact organisation Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union
1.2. Contact organisation unit Unit F4: Education, Science and Culture statistics
1.5. Contact mail address 2920 Luxembourg LUXEMBOURG


2. Metadata update Top
2.1. Metadata last certified 30/05/2011
2.2. Metadata last posted 30/05/2011
2.3. Metadata last update 11/04/2013


3. Statistical presentation Top
3.1. Data description

There are three main sources providing results on participation in education and training.

- The Adult Education Survey (AES) is carried out every 5 years starting from 2011 and is designed to give detailed information on the participation of individuals in education and training activities. A pilot survey took place in 2007. The reference period for the participation in education and training activities is the twelve months prior to the interview.

- The Labour Force Survey (LFS) provides annual evolutions for a limited set of indicators. The reference period for the participation in education and training activities is the four weeks prior to the interview.

- The Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) completes the AES results each 5 years focussing on enterprise strategies for employee skill developments. The reference period for the participation in education and training activities is the four weeks prior to the interview.

The time series for the indicator 'lifelong learning' (participation of adults aged 25-64 in education and training) is based on the EU-LFS (four-week reference period) which is, where necessary, adjusted and enriched in various ways, in accordance with the specificities of an indicator, including the following:

- correction of the main breaks in the LFS series,

- estimation of the missing values, (i.e. in case of missing quarters, annual results and EU aggregates are estimated using adjusted quarterly national labour force survey data or interpolations of the EU Labour Force Survey data with reference to the available quarter(s))

In addition to these series, an ad-hoc module to the LFS was conducted in 2003 on lifelong leaninng with similar characteristics to the AES (12-month reference period).

Life-long learning is also part of the Sustainable Development Indicators.

3.2. Classification system

The classification of education, occupation and economic activities in these surveys are fully harmonised with the classifications used in other fields of the European system of statistics.

The classification of the economic activities is in accordance to NACE Rev.1.1 until 2007 and NACE Rev 2 from 2008 and occupations according to ISCO-COM (88) until 2010 and ISCO (08) from 2011 (http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/).

The classification of educational activities is based on ISCED - the International Standard Classification of Education - UNESCO 1997.

3.3. Coverage - sector

As a general rule the EU-LFS and the AES covers all economic sectors while the CVTS is restricted to enterprises with 10 or more persons employed belonging to the NACE Rev 1.1 categories C, D (15-16, 17-19, 21-22, 23-26, 27-28, 29-33, 34-35, 20+36+37), E, F, G (50, 51, 52), H, I (60-63, 64), J (65-66, 67), K+O.

3.4. Statistical concepts and definitions

Lifelong learning: All learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences, within a personal, civic, social, and employment related perspectives.

Learning activities: Any activities of an individual organised with the intention to improve his/her knowledge, skills, and competences. Intentional learning (as opposed to random learning) is defined as a deliberate search for knowledge, skills, competences, or attitudes of lasting value. Organised learning is defined as learning planned in a pattern or sequence with the explicit or implicit aims.

Formal education is defined as education provided in the system of schools, colleges, universities and other formal educational institutions that normally constitutes a continuous "ladder" of full-time education for children and young people, generally beginning at the age of five to seven and continuing to up to 20 or 25 years old.

Non Formal Education is defined as any organised and sustained educational activities that do not correspond exactly to the above definition of formal education. Non-formal education may therefore take place both within and outside educational institutions and cater to persons of all ages. Depending on country contexts, it may cover educational programmes to impart adult literacy, basic education for out of school children, life-skills, work-skills, and general culture.

The numerator of the LFS-Life-long learning indicator denotes the percentage of persons aged 25 to 64 (excluding the ones who did not answer the question 'participation to education and training') who received education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey. Both the numerators and the denominators come from the European Union Labour Force Survey (LFS).

Life-long learning is computed on the basis of the variable 'participation in education and training in the last four weeks' from the EU Labour Force Survey. From 2004 onwards, this variable is derived from two variables, i.e. 'participation in regular education' and 'participation in other taught activities'. Self learning activities are no longer covered.

A reference period of the four weeks preceding the survey has been chosen for the LFS questions on participation in education in order to avoid distortion of information due to recall problems (see relevant footnotes for exceptions in the Annex: Lifelong learning. 

The information collected in the LFS relates to all education and training, whether relevant to the respondent's current or possible future job or not. It includes formal and non-formal education and training that means in general activities in the school/university systems but also courses, seminars workshops, etc. outside the formal education and regardless their topic.

Before 1998, education and training was related only to the activities relevant for current or future possible job of the respondent.

3.5. Statistical unit

Individuals living in private households for the EU-LFS and the AES. Enterprises for the CVTS.

3.6. Statistical population

See the information available for individual survey.

3.7. Reference area

See the information available for individual survey.

3.8. Coverage - Time

See the information available for individual survey.

3.9. Base period

See the information available for individual survey.


4. Unit of measure Top

See the information available for individual survey.


5. Reference Period Top

See the information available for individual survey.


6. Institutional Mandate Top
6.1. Institutional Mandate - legal acts and other agreements

The European Union Labour Force Survey implementation is governed by legislative acts of the Council and Parliament, as well as of the Commission. The principal legislation is the Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 of 9 March 1998 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community (OJ No L 77/3). This is the main regulation with provisions on design, survey characteristics and decision making processes. See also the list of LFS Regulations.

6.2. Institutional Mandate - data sharing

Not available.


7. Confidentiality Top
7.1. Confidentiality - policy

Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics (recital 24 and Article 20(4)) of 11 March 2009 (OJ L 87, p. 164), stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society.

7.2. Confidentiality - data treatment

See the information available for individual survey.


8. Release policy Top
8.1. Release calendar

LFS educational data are up-dated twice a year:

- in spring along with the release of data for quarter 4 and averages of quarters 1 to 4 and

- in autumn with the release of of LFS quarter 2 data.

Please consult the release calendar of EU LFS data for the exact dates.

8.2. Release calendar access

Not applicable.

8.3. Release policy - user access

In line with the Community legal framework and the European Statistics Code of Practice Eurostat disseminates European statistics on Eurostat's website (see item 10 - 'Dissemination format') respecting professional independence and in an objective, professional and transparent manner in which all users are treated equitably. The detailed arrangements are governed by the Eurostat protocol on impartial access to Eurostat data for users.


9. Frequency of dissemination Top

See the information available for individual survey.


10. Dissemination format Top
10.1. Dissemination format - News release

News releases on-line.

10.2. Dissemination format - Publications

See the information available on the Website.

10.3. Dissemination format - online database

Please consult free data on-line or refer to contact details.

10.4. Dissemination format - microdata access

See the information available on the Website.

10.5. Dissemination format - other

See the information available on the Website.


11. Accessibility of documentation Top
11.1. Documentation on methodology

See the information available on the Website.

11.2. Quality management - documentation

See the information available on the Website.


12. Quality management Top
12.1. Quality assurance

See the information available on the Website.

12.2. Quality management - assessment

See the information available on the Website.


13. Relevance Top
13.1. Relevance - User Needs

See the information available for individual survey.

13.2. Relevance - User Satisfaction

See the information available for individual survey.

13.3. Completeness

See the information available on the Website.


14. Accuracy Top
14.1. Accuracy - overall

Please refer to the ESMS page on 'Employment and unemployment (LFS)' (see link below in section 20.3) or to the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users for AES and CVTS data.

14.2. Sampling error

Please refer to the ESMS page on 'Employment and unemployment (LFS)' (see link below in section 20.3) or to the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users for AES and CVTS data.

14.3. Non-sampling error

Please refer to the ESMS page on 'Employment and unemployment (LFS)' (see link below in section 20.3) or to the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users for AES and CVTS data.


15. Timeliness and punctuality Top
15.1. Timeliness

LFS data are released approximately 4 months after the end of the reference year.

15.2. Punctuality

See the information available for individual survey on the Website.


16. Comparability Top
16.1. Comparability - geographical

Comparability across countries is considered as high.  It is ensured by the use of a common calculation method and a harmonised data source.

EU-LFS is harmonised through a common Council regulation ((EC) No 577/98), common variable definition (Commission Regulations - see the EU labour force survey – main features and legal basis), common explanatory notes and common regulation (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1897/2000) regarding the definition of unemployment and the twelve principles of questionnaire.

For AES and CVTS, please consult the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.

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16.2. Comparability - over time

Comparability over time is considered as high.

From 2006 onwards, Commission Regulation (EC) No 430/2005 of 15 March 2005 regulates the LFS codification to be used for data transmission and the use of a sub-sample for the collection of data on structural variables (OJ No L 71/36). As for the Participating Countries, main changes referred either to the mode of data collection or to adaptations of the questionnaire.

For AES and CVTS, please consult the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.

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17. Coherence Top
17.1. Coherence - cross domain

See section 3.1

17.2. Coherence - internal

See the information available for individual survey on the Website.


18. Cost and Burden Top

Not available.


19. Data revision Top
19.1. Data revision - policy

The LFS indicators are estimated twice a year (spring, autumn - see release calendar, section 8.1). The estimation involves the re-calculation of previous years. LFS revisions are not expected, unless major errors are identified in the data delivered or in their processing. Exceptional revisions may happen e.g. after new estimates of population from a population census.

19.2. Data revision - practice

See the information available for individual survey on the Website.


20. Statistical processing Top
20.1. Source data

The EU-LFS (see link employ_esms at the bottom of this page) is the main source for the data.

The EU-LFS is a rotating random sample survey of persons in private households.  It is organised in thirteen modules, covering their demographic background, labour status, employment characteristics of the main job, hours worked, employment characteristics of the second job, time-related underemployment, search for employment, education and training, previous work experience of persons not in employment, situation one year before the survey, main labour status, income, and technical items relating to the interview. For details see Council Regulation (EC) No 577/98 of 9 March 1998 on the organisation of a labour force sample survey in the Community (OJ No L 77/3)

20.2. Frequency of data collection

Since the early 2000's, the LFS has quarterly periodicity, previously it was an annual survey run in spring.

AES and CVTS are run every 5 years (last available results: 2011 and 2010 respectively) . For more information please consult the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.

20.3. Data collection

LFS sata are acquired by interviewing the sampled individuals directly. Three modes of data collection exist for the EU-LFS: personal visits, telephone interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Half of the Participating Countries mix the two first so that the first wave is always or mainly via personal visit while subsequent waves are interviewed with telephone if available.

Twenty-one of the countries conduct the interview only with computerised questionnaires. Other two use both computerised and paper questionnaires. The rest rely solely on paper questionnaires.

For more information on the LFS, please consult the following statistics explained:

the following statistics explained:

- the EU labour force survey – methodology (in particular, user guide for the coding)

- the EU labour force survey – main features and legal basis

- the EU labour force survey – data and publication (in particular, publishing Guidelines)

- the EU labour force survey ad-hoc modules

 

For AES and CVTS data, please consult the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.

20.4. Data validation

Prior to the dissemination of data, Eurostat checks the quality and consistency of data transmitted by National Statistical Institutes. Eurostat calculates main results and they are then validated by the Member States. Afterwards they can be published.

20.5. Data compilation

The indicators for the Member States are calculated first, separately numerator and denominator. EU LFS microdata is used for this purpose. The European aggregates are subsequently compiled by summing country data in numerator and denominator, and finally the indicator percentage is calculated.

The EU and Euro area aggregates are provided:

- until 1999, on the basis of the available country data,

- from 1999 onwards, using the closest available year result in case of missing country data .

For more detail, please consult the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.

20.6. Adjustment

In case of missing quarterly LFS data (before 2005), annual results are estimated by using interpolations of the EU Labour Force Survey data with reference to the available quarter(s).  For detailed information, please visit the Circa webpage for researchers and advanced users.


21. Comment Top

Not available


Related metadata Top
employ_esms - Employment and unemployment (Labour Force Survey)
lfsi_esms - LFS main indicators
trng_aes_esms - Adult Education Survey
trng_cvts_esms - Continuing Vocational Training


Annexes Top