Energy saving statistics
From Statistics Explained
- Data from June 2013. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
Saving 20 % energy by 2020
The European Union (EU) has committed itself to a 20 % energy saving by the year 2020. This objective is also known as the 20 % energy efficiency improvements objective.
This article provides statistical evaluation of the progress made towards this objective and describes the statistical method for its measurement.
Main statistical findings
Primary energy consumption and savings
Primary energy consumption (shown in Figure 1) increased between 1990 and 2011 by 1.3 %. While consumption of solid fossil fuels (coal and coal products) decreased by 37.1 % and oil and petroleum products decreased by 8.9 %, consumption of renewables increased by 139.1 %, natural gas (including manufactured gases) increased by 36.7 % and nuclear energy increased by 14.0 %. Primary energy consumption peaked in 2006 and then decreased by 7.2 % by 2011. The effect of recent financial and economic crises is very visible in the primary energy consumption in 2009. It is not yet possible to derive from available data to what extent figures for 2011 suggest a continuation of a long term decreasing trend and to what extent energy consumption is influenced by the overall economic situation in Europe.
In 2011, primary energy consumption of oil and petroleum products reached a record low since 1990; however oil and petroleum products are still the most important source of primary energy with a 31.5 % share.
Final energy consumption and savings
Final energy consumption (Figure 3) increased between 1990 and 2011 by 2.5 %. While consumption of solid fossil fuels (coal and coal products) decreased by 61.1 % and consumption of derived heat (heat sold) by 9.5 %, final energy consumption of renewables increased by 102.5 % and final consumption of electricity increased by 28.6 %. Final energy consumption peaked in 2005-2006 and then decreased by 7.4 % by 2011. The effect of recent financial and economic crises is very visible in the primary energy consumption in 2009. It is not yet possible to derive from available data to what extent figures for 2011 suggest a continuation of a long term decreasing trend and to what extent energy consumption is influenced by the overall economic situation in Europe.
In 2011, final energy consumption of oil and petroleum products reached a record low since 1991, roughly equal to its level in 1990; however oil and petroleum products are still the most important source of final energy with a 40.3 % share. Solid fossil fuels are undergoing a long term decreasing trend and contribute only 4.4 % to final energy consumption.
Final energy savings for EU-28 reached 11.23 % in 2011 (Figure 4). For EU-27 the final energy savings were 11.20 %.
Data sources and availability
Data from energy balances have been used for all calculations. The most recent data available are for 2011. Data are available for all EU Member States. In general, data are complete, recent and highly comparable across countries. This results in high accuracy and accountability of EU aggregate figures.
The legislative requirements in Directive 2012/27/EU refer to two aspects of EU energy data, the measured energy consumption and the consumption which would take place in the year 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario (projections). The difference between the two should amount to 20 % for the objective to be reached.
The target values for 2020 are fixed in Article 3 of Directive 2012/27/EU: the Union’s 2020 energy consumption has to be no more than 1 474 Mtoe of primary energy or no more than 1 078 Mtoe of final energy.
The values above are for EU-27. For EU-28, the equivalent values are 1 483 Mtoe for primary energy consumption and 1 086 Mtoe for final energy consumption.
P(t) denotes the primary energy consumption in year t. It is calculated as gross inland consumption [B_100900] minus final non-energy consumption [B_101600]. The energy consumption has to be measured in Mtoe.
F(t) denotes the final energy consumption in year t. It is equal to final energy consumption [B_101700]. The energy consumption has to be measured in Mtoe.
The indicator for monitoring progress towards the 20 % savings of primary energy consumption sP(t) and the indicator for monitoring progress towards the 20 % savings of final energy consumption sF(t) are defined in a such way that in case the target in 2020 is reached the indicator is equal to 20 %.
Thus P(2020) = 1 474 implies sP(2020) = 20 % and F(2020) = 1 078 implies sF(2020) = 20 %. For 2005 (t=2005) the indicators are 0 % and this is the first year for which the indicators are calculated, thus sP(2005) = 0 % and sF(2005) = 0 %.
For the time period after 2005 (2005) the savings are calculated as the difference between the actual energy consumption and the linear trajectory between 2005 and 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario divided by the energy consumption in year 2020 in the business-as-usual scenario.
The linear trajectories for EU-27 are defined as: for primary energy: ltP(t) = P(2005) + (1 474 / 0.8 – P(2005) ) / (2020 – 2005) * (t – 2005) for final energy: ltF(t) = F(2005) + (1 078 / 0.8 – F(2005) ) / (2020 – 2005) * (t – 2005)
From the linear trajectory we have to subtract the actual observed value of energy consumption and divide by the target energy consumption value in 2020 and subsequently multiply by 100 to obtain resulting value in percentages.
for primary energy: sP(t) = ( ltP(t) - P(t) ) / (1 474 / 0.8) * 100
for final energy: sF(t) = ( ltF(t) - F(t) ) / (1 078 / 0.8) * 100
The obtained result is the energy savings indicator for primary and/or final energy consumption. For EU-28, the formulae above use 1 483 and 1 086 instead of 1 474 and 1 078.
Europe cannot afford to waste energy. Energy efficiency is the most cost effective way to reduce emissions, improve energy security, enhance competitiveness and make energy consumption more affordable for all consumers. Energy efficiency is also one of the key factors in achieving our long-term energy and climate goals.
The European Council adopted in 2007 ambitious energy and climate change objectives for 2020:
- to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 %
- to increase the share of renewable energy to 20 %
- to make a 20 % improvement in energy efficiency.
The European Parliament has continuously supported these goals.
On 25 October 2012, the EU adopted Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency. This Directive establishes a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the Union in order to ensure the achievement of the 20 % headline target on energy efficiency.
Further Eurostat information
- Energy (t_nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - main indicators (t_nrg_indic)
- Energy statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - main indicators (nrg_indic)
- Energy intensity of the economy - annual data (nrg_ind_332a)
- Primary energy consumption savings in % (20-20-20 targets) - annual data (nrg_ind_334a)
Methodology / Metadata
- Energy statistics - quantities (ESMS metadata file)
- Main indicators - Energy statistics (ESMS metadata file)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- In addition to figures for EU-28, the file also includes figures for EU-27.
- European Commission - Energy - Energy 2020 initiative
- International Energy Agency - Energy efficiency