Farm structure in Croatia
From Statistics Explained
- Data from June 2010. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
This article is part of a series of country-specific essays on the results of the European Union (EU) Farm structure survey (FSS) 2007. It provides a brief but nevertheless comprehensive insight into farm structure in Croatia.
Main statistical findings
Family labour force is 95% of the total labour force in Croatian farms.
Since June 2004 Croatia has been a candidate country for EU membership. It was the first, of the now existing candidate countries to deliver data on the farm structure according to the EU legislation. In this article the results of the Farm Structure Survey (FSS) 2007 are presented.
Due to the different coverage of the FSS across member states (different minimum thresholds for defining an agricultural holding), the total number of surveyed farms is not comparable between countries. The present analysis (like all the FSS 2007 articles by country) focuses on the holdings having at least a standard output (SO) of 1200 €, leaving out the very small agricultural units. In table 1 the key variables for Croatia are presented divided into two categories:
a) with a SO under 1 200 € and
b) with a SO of at least 1 200 €.
In Croatia 181 250 agricultural holdings where recorded in the 2007 FSS. 132 610 (73%) of these holdings had a standard output of over 1 200 €. While the number of holdings that had a Standard Output of under 1 200 € represented 27% of the total number of holdings and 20% of the persons working on the holdings, they only represented 2% in terms of total UAA , total LSU, and total SO.
The 132 610 holdings with a standard output of at least 1200 €, employed around 160 000 AWUs (Annual Working Units), the equivalent of 160 000 people working full time. The average area per AWU was 6 ha.
These holdings had 0.86 million Livestock Units (LSU) in 2007. On average each farm had 6.5 LSU. Amongst the 132 610 agricultural holdings in 2007:
- 47 % made use of less than one AWU, while another 15% made use of two or more AWUs;
- 69 % used less than 5 ha, while 1% used 50 ha or more;
- 58 % were producing mainly for own consumption,
- 26 % were specialists in various crops and livestock combined;
- 14 % mixed livestock, mainly grazing livestock specialists;
- 13 % specialist dairying;
- 9 % were mixed cropping holdings.
Amongst the sole holders:
- 17 % were women in 2007;
- 63 % were aged 55 or more and 3 % were younger than 35 years (the tendency is towards ageing of the farm holders);
- 30 % had another gainful activity in 2007;
- 57 % of their agricultural area was owned by farmers.
The family labour force represented 97 % of the people working on farms.
The number of holdings decreased by 4% and the UAA by 7% since 2003.
Data sources and availability
The Croatian Bureau of Statistics (CBS) carried out the FSS 2007 as sample survey that covered all the agricultural enterprises and a sample of family farms that met the threshold defined for the agriculture holding in Croatia for the FSS:
- at least one hectare of utilised agricultural area, or
- at least 0.1 hectare of utilised agricultural area and 0.9 hectare of forest, or
- at least 0.3 hectares of vineyards and/or orchards, or
- two or more livestock units (LSU), or
- 0.15 to 0.3 hectare of vineyards/orchards and 1 or 2 LSU, or
- are market producers of vegetables, herbs, strawberries, mushrooms, flowers or ornamental plants.
The FSS 2007 in Croatia used the Agricultural Census 2003 as a sampling frame. The total number of holdings in the census 2003 was 448 500, from this universe a total of 260 300 very small holdings that did not meet the threshold criteria were excluded (which represent only 2% of the UAA).
The reference date of the FSS 2007 was 1 June 2007, and the reference period was 1 June 2006 – 31 May 2007. The agricultural enterprises were surveyed via post, and for the family farms a face-to-face interview was used.
Fulltime work of family labour force was included in the category of "75% of 1 AWU and over".
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Main results and Metadata by country, Croatian Agricultural Census 2003;
- Croatian Bureau of Statistics;*National Methodological Report for the Farm Structure Survey in Croatia 2007;
- FSS 2007 see table
European Commission Rural development policy aims to improve competitiveness in agriculture and forestry, improve the environment and countryside, improve the quality of life in rural areas and encourage the diversification of rural economies.
As agriculture has modernized and the importance of industry and services within the economy has increased, so agriculture has become much less important as a source of jobs. Consequently, increasing emphasis is placed on the role farmers can play in rural development, including forestry, biodiversity, the diversification of the rural economy to create alternative jobs and environmental protection in rural areas.
The FSS continues to adapt to provide timely and relevant data to help analyze and follow these developments.
Further Eurostat information
- National Methodological Report – FSS 2007 Croatia (available on request)
- Agriculture, see:
- Structure of agricultural holdings (t_ef)
- Agriculture, see:
- Structure of agricultural holdings (ef)
Methodology / Metadata
- Structure of agricultural holdings (ESMS metadata file - ef_esms)