From Statistics Explained
- Data from October 2012. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
This article provides an overview of recent statistics on housing in the European Union (EU), EFTA countries and Croatia, focusing on dwelling types, tenure status (choosing to own or rent a property), housing quality and affordability.
Decent housing, at an affordable price in a safe environment, is a fundamental need and right. Ensuring this need is met, which is likely to alleviate poverty and social exclusion, is still a significant challenge in a number of European countries.
Main statistical findings
Type of dwelling
In 2010, 41.8 % of the EU-27 population lived in flats, just over one third (34.4 %) in detached houses and 23.0 % in semi-detached houses. The share of persons living in flats was highest among the EU Member States in Latvia (65.4 %), Estonia and Spain (both 64.5 %). The share of people living in detached houses peaked in Slovenia (67.3 %), Hungary (64.5 %), Romania (61.0 %) and Denmark (59.2 %); Croatia and Norway also reported high shares (72.9 % and 62.7 % respectively) of their populations living in detached houses. The highest propensity to live in semi-detached houses was reported in the Netherlands (60.7 %), the United Kingdom (60.3 %) and Ireland (58.3 %) – see Figure 1.
In 2010, over one quarter (27.9 %) of the EU-27 population lived in an owner-occupied home for which there was an outstanding loan or mortgage, while more than two fifths (42.9 %) of the population lived in an owner-occupied home without a loan or mortgage. As such, just over seven out of every ten (70.8 %) persons in the EU-27 lived in owner-occupied dwellings, while 17.8 % were tenants with a market price rent, and 11.4 % tenants in reduced-rent or free accommodation.
More than half of the population in each EU Member State (see Figure 2) lived in owner-occupied dwellings in 2010; ranging from 53.2 % in Germany up to 97.5 % in Romania. In Switzerland, the proportion of people who lived in rented dwellings outweighed those living in owner-occupied dwellings; some 55.6 % of the population were tenants. In Sweden (68.0 %), the Netherlands (59.5 %) and Denmark (52.7 %) more than half of the population lived in owner-occupied dwellings with an outstanding loan or mortgage; this was also the case in Iceland (67.6 %) and Norway (61.1 %).
The share of persons living in rented dwellings with a market price rent in 2010 was less than 10 % in 12 of the EU Member States, as well as in Croatia. By contrast, more than one quarter of the population in Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Luxembourg and Austria lived in rented dwellings with a market price rent; this share rose to almost half (49.9 %) in Switzerland. The share of the population living in a dwelling with a reduced price rent or occupying a dwelling free of charge was less than 20 % in all EU Member States.
One of the key dimensions in assessing the quality of housing conditions is the availability of sufficient space in the dwelling. The overcrowding rate describes the proportion of people living in an overcrowded dwelling, as defined by the number of rooms available to the household, the household’s size, as well as its members’ ages and their family situation.
In 2010, 17.6 % of the EU-27 population lived in overcrowded dwellings (see Figure 3); the highest overcrowding rates were registered in Latvia (57.1 %), Romania (54.9 %), Poland (47.5 %), Bulgaria (47.4 %), Hungary (47.2 %) and Lithuania (46.4 %); a similar share was recorded in Croatia (44.4 %). By contrast, the Netherlands (2.0 %) and Cyprus (2.8 %) recorded the lowest rates of overcrowding, while ten other EU Member States (as well as Norway, Switzerland and Iceland) all reported less than 10 % of their respective populations living in overcrowded housing.
Within the population at-risk-of-poverty (in other words, people living in households where equivalised disposable income per person was below 60 % of the national median), the overcrowding rate in the EU-27 was 29.4 % in 2010, some 11.8 percentage points above the rate for the whole population. The highest overcrowding rates among the population at-risk-of-poverty were registered in Hungary (69.7 %), Latvia (67.6 %), Poland (65.6 %) and Romania (65.2 %), while more than half of all persons at-risk-of-poverty in Slovakia, Estonia, Bulgaria and Lithuania also lived in overcrowded housing. At the other end of the range, the lowest overcrowding rates for those at-risk-of-poverty were recorded in the Netherlands (4.5 %), Malta (5.8 %), Cyprus (5.9 %), Ireland and Spain (both 6.8 %); these were the only EU Member States to report that fewer than one in ten persons at-risk-of-poverty were living in overcrowded conditions (see Figure 3).
In addition to overcrowding, some other aspects of housing deprivation – such as the lack of a bath or a toilet, a leaking roof in the dwelling, or a dwelling considered as being too dark – are taken into account to build a more complete indicator of housing quality. The severe housing deprivation rate is defined as the proportion of persons living in a dwelling which is considered as being overcrowded, while having at the same time at least one of these aforementioned housing deprivation measures. Across the EU-27 as a whole, 5.7 % of the population suffered from severe housing deprivation in 2010 (see Figure 4). There were eight EU Member States where more than one in ten of the population faced severe housing deprivation, with the share rising to 22.6 % in Latvia and peaking at just over one in four persons (26.9 %) in Romania. By contrast, less than 1 % of the population in Finland, Ireland and the Netherlands faced severe housing deprivation.
In 2010, an estimated 10 % of the EU-27 population lived in households that spent 40 % or more of their equivalised disposable income on housing (see Table 2). The proportion of the population whose housing costs exceeded 40 % of their equivalised disposable income was highest for tenants with market price rents (26.3 %) and lowest for persons in owner-occupied dwellings without a loan or mortgage (6.0 %).
The EU-27 average masks significant differences between Member States: at one extreme there were a number of Member States where a relatively small proportion of the population lived in households where housing costs exceeded 40 % of their disposable income, notably Cyprus (2.5 %), Malta (3.4 %), Finland and Portugal (both 4.2 %) and Slovenia (4.3 %). At the other extreme, around one fifth of the population in Denmark (21.9 %) and Greece (18.1 %) spent more than 40 % of their equivalised disposable income on housing, followed by the United Kingdom (16.5 %) and Romania (15.0 %).
Data sources and availability
The data used in this section are primarily derived from microdata from EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC). The reference population is all private households and their current members residing in the territory of an EU Member State at the time of data collection; persons living in collective households and in institutions are generally excluded from the target population. The EU-27 aggregate is a population-weighted average of individual national figures.
The EU does not have any specific responsibilities with respect to housing; rather, national governments develop their own housing policies. Nevertheless, many of the EU Member States face similar challenges: for example, how to renew housing stocks, how to plan and combat urban sprawl, how to promote sustainable development, how to help young and disadvantage groups to get into the housing market, or how to promote energy efficiency among homeowners.
As such, questions of social housing, homelessness or integration play an important role within the EU’s social policy agenda. The charter of fundamental rights stipulates in Article II-94 that ‘in order to combat social exclusion and poverty, the Union recognises and respects the right to social and housing assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient resources, in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices’. Within this context, a European Council meeting in Nice in 2000, reached an agreement on a set of common objectives for the EU’s strategy against poverty and social exclusion, including two objectives related to housing, namely ‘to implement policies which aim to provide access for all to decent and sanitary housing, as well as basic services necessary to live normally having regard to local circumstances (electricity, water, heating, etc.)’ and ‘to put in place policies which seek to prevent life crises, which can lead to situations of social exclusion, such as indebtedness, exclusion from school and becoming homeless.’ This remit was extended in 2010 when the European platform against poverty and social exclusion (COM(2010) 758 final) set out a series of actions to help reduce the number of people at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion by at least 20 million persons by 2020 – see also the article on social inclusion statistics.
Further Eurostat information
- Housing conditions in Europe in 2009 - Statistics in focus 4/2011
- Employment and Social Developments in Europe 2011
- Income and living conditions in Europe – Statistical books
- The social situation in the European Union 2009 – Statistical books
- 51 million young EU adults lived with their parent(s) in 2008 - Statistics in focus 50/2010
- Combating poverty and social exclusion
- Living conditions and welfare (t_livcon), see:
- Income and living conditions (t_ilc)
- Income distribution and monetary poverty (t_ilc_ip)
- Living conditions (t_ilc_lv)
- Living conditions and welfare (livcon), see:
- Income and living conditions (ilc)
- Living conditions (ilc_lv)
- Housing conditions (ilc_lvho)
- Material deprivation (ilc_md)
- Housing deprivation (ilc_mdho)
- Living conditions (ilc_lv)
Methodology / Metadata
- Income and living conditions (ESMS metadata file - ilc_esms)
- The production of data on homelessness and housing deprivation in the European Union: survey and proposals
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Regulation 1177/2003 of 16 June 2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC)
- Regulation 1553/2005 of 7 September 2005 amending Regulation 1177/2003 concerning Community statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC)
- Regulation 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006 adapting certain Regulations and Decisions in the fields of ... statistics, ..., by reason of the accession of Bulgaria and Romania