Job vacancy statistics
From Statistics Explained
- Data from March 2013, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
This article gives an overview of recent job vacancy statistics in the European Union (EU), notably the job vacancy rate (JVR). EU policies in the area of job vacancies aim to improve the functioning of the labour market by trying to more closely match supply and demand. In order to enable job seekers to consult all vacancies publicised in each of the Member State's employment services, the European jobs and mobility portal EURES was set up.
Job vacancy trends over the last decade are analysed in another article.
Main statistical findings
In the fourth quarter of 2012, the estimated job vacancy rate (JVR) for the euro area (EA-17) was 1.6 %, for the EU-27 it was 1.4 %. Compared to the previous quarter the JVR increased by 0.1 p.p. in the EA-17 and was stable in the EU-27. Compared to the fourth quarter of 2011 the JVR decreased in the EA-17 by 0.1 p.p. and also by 0.1 p.p. in the EU-27 (see Figure 1).
Figure 2 shows that in the fourth quarter of 2012 Malta (3.0 %), Germany (2.7 %) and Norway (2.3 %) have the highest JVR while Italy and Portugal (both 0.3 %) have the lowest.
Among the countries for which data for the fourth quarter of 2012 are available the JVR rose in six and fell in 13 countries, when compared with the same quarter of the previous year. Increases were registered for Malta (0.2 p.p.), the Czech Republic, Denmark, Lithuania, Romania and the United Kingdom (all 0.1 p.p). The JVR remained stable in Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Hungary, Slovakia and Switzerland. Finally, the JVR fell in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Austria (all 0.3 p.p), Bulgaria, Slovenia and Norway (all 0.2 p.p) and Spain, France, Cyprus, Portugal, Finland and Sweden (each 0.1 p.p.). Belgium and Croatia have not been taken into account as data for the fourth quarter of 2012 are not comparable with one year before.
Data sources and availability
Quarterly data on job vacancies and occupied posts may be presented broken down by economic activity and enterprise size. The national statistical authorities responsible for compiling job vacancy statistics send these statistics to Eurostat. Their data are used to compile the job vacancy rate for the EU and the euro area.
Some of the data provided by the Member States fails to match common criteria and there may be differences in the coverage of the data between countries; as a result, there are currently no EU-27 totals for the actual numbers of job vacancies or occupied posts. The EU-27 and euro area job vacancy rates are calculated on the basis of the information that is available. It is therefore not possible, at present, to present EU-27 or euro area job vacancy rates broken down by economic activity or size of enterprise.
The job vacancy rate, in part, reflects the unmet demand for labour, as well as potential mismatches between the skills and availability of those who are unemployed and those sought by employers. Job vacancy statistics are used by the European Commission and the European Central Bank (ECB) to analyse and monitor the evolution of the labour market at national and European level. These statistics are also a key indicator used for an assessment of the business cycle and for a structural analysis of the economy.
Policy developments in this area have mainly focused on trying to improve the labour market by more closely matching supply and demand, through:
- modernising and strengthening labour market institutions, notably employment services;
- removing obstacles to worker mobility across Europe;
- better anticipating skill needs, labour market shortages and bottlenecks;
- managing economic migration;
- improving the adaptability of workers and enterprises so that there is a greater capacity to anticipate, trigger and absorb economic and social change.
The European jobs and mobility portal (EURES) was set-up with the aim of providing job seekers in the EU with the opportunity to consult all job vacancies publicised in each of the Member State's employment services. The website provides access to a range of job vacancies from 31 European countries (the 27 EU Member States, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland). In autumn 2011, there were over one million job vacancies advertised by over 25 000 registered employers on the website, while more than 750 000 people had posted their CVs on the website. This work is continued in 2012.
European job days are another EU initiative in this domain and 2011 was the fifth edition of this programme of activities: during September and October 2011, a wide range of events took place all over Europe with the aim of raising awareness about the opportunities and practicalities of living and working in another European country. The events typically include job fairs, seminars, lectures, workshops and cultural events, all aimed at improving labour mobility.
Further Eurostat information
- Quarterly job vacancies and job vacancy rates, total NACE_Rev2 (sections B to S) (tps00172)
- Annual job vacancy statistics (jvs_a)
- Job vacancy statistics by occupation and NUTS 2 regions - annual data, NACE Rev. 2 (from 2008) (jvs_a_nace2)
- Job vacancy statistics by occupation and NUTS 2 regions - annual data, NACE Rev. 1.1 (2000-2008) (jvs_a_nace1)
- Quarterly job vacancy statistics (jvs_q)
- Job vacancy statistics - quarterly data, NACE Rev. 2 (from 2001Q1) (jvs_q_nace2)
- Job vacancy statistics - quarterly data, NACE Rev. 1.1 (2001Q1-2009Q4) (jvs_q_nace1)
- Job vacancies
Methodology / Metadata
- 1st and 2nd International Workshops on Methodologies for Job Vacancy Statistics in Nuremberg (2008) and Neuchâtel (2009) - Proceedings
- Quarterly job vacancy statistics (ESMS metadata file - jvs_q_esms)
- The European Union labour force survey
Source data for tables and figures on this page (MS Excel)
- EURES, the European jobs and mobility portal
- OECD - Data by theme - Labour - Labour force statistics - Short-term statistics - Registered Unemployed and Job Vacancies (MEI): Job Vacancies