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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


New: Migrant integration statistics - employment

Evolution of activity rates in EU-28, population aged 20-64 years by broad groups of citizenship, 2007-13.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the employment of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. More ...

Updated: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2002-2014-08-e.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are early estimates of euro area inflation. More ...

New: Resource productivity statistics

Res Prod compared to GDP and DMC 2000-2012.png
This article presents recent statistics on resource productivity in the European Union (EU) and its Member States. The EU’s resource productivity has increased by 29.2 % in the 2000–12 timeframe. Whereas resource productivity has slowly increased over the years between 2000 and 2007, the sharp increase between 2008 and 2010 was, to a large extent, caused by a decline in various resource-intensive industries during the economic crisis. More ...

Updated: Tourism statistics - nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments

Percentage change in number of nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments, March 2014 compared with March 2013 (%).png
This article focuses on the short-term evolutions in the nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments in the European Union (EU). The data of the most recent reference month available are compared with the same month of the previous year, in addition and to smoothen fluctuations - data for a three months' period are compared with the same period one year earlier. More ...

Updated: Living standard statistics

Change in median income in 2011 compared with 2010 after adjusting for inflation.png
This article focuses on living standards in the European Union (EU), as measured by the median equivalised disposable income. Living standards fell in 17 Member States in 2011 compared with a year earlier, after adjusting for inflation. More ...

New: Physical imports and exports

Physical imports and exports of goods by main material category, EU-27, 2000-2012 (tonnes per capita).png
Unlike the EU's monetary value of trade its physical trade balance is asymmetric. The EU imports nearly three times more goods by weight from the rest of the world than it exports. Quantitatively the physical imports into the EU are dominated by fossil fuels More ...

Updated: Material flow accounts

Materials available to EU-27 economies and how they are used, 2012 (tonnes per capita).png
Eurostat’s economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) constitute a comprehensive data framework that systematically records the inputs of materials to European economies in a detailed breakdown by material categories such as fossil energy materials, biomass, metal ores etc. More ...

Updated: Unemployment statistics

Change in the number of unemployed persons (compared to previous month, in thousands), seasonally adjusted, January 2006 - July 2014.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000.

Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. More ...

Today's article

National accounts and GDP

Real GDP growth, 2003–13 (% change compared with the previous year) YB14.png
National accounts are the source for a multitude of well-known economic indicators which are presented in this article. Gross domestic product (GDP) is the most frequently used measure for the overall size of an economy, while derived indicators such as GDP per capita — for example, in euro or adjusted for differences in price levels — are widely used for a comparison of living standards, or to monitor the process of convergence across the European Union (EU).

Moreover, the development of specific GDP components and related indicators, such as those for economic output, imports and exports, domestic (private and public) consumption or investments, as well as data on the distribution of income and savings, can give valuable insights into the driving forces in an economy and thus be the basis for the design, monitoring and evaluation of specific EU policies.

Main statistical findings

Developments in GDP

Growth in the EU-28’s GDP slowed substantially in 2008 and GDP contracted considerably in 2009 as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. There was a recovery in the level of EU-28 GDP in 2010 and this development continued (albeit at a progressively slower pace) in 2011, 2012 and 2013, as GDP increased to EUR 13 075 000 million — its highest ever level in current price terms (see Figure 1).

The euro area (EA-18) accounted for 73.4 % of this total in 2013, while the sum of the five largest EU Member State economies (Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain) was 71.0 %. However, cross-country comparisons should be made with caution as notably exchange rate fluctuations may significantly influence the development of nominal GDP figures for those EU Member States which have not adopted the euro. More ...