Pagina principală

De la Statistics Explained

Bine aţi venit la Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, ghidul dumneavoastră privind statisticile europene.

Statistics Explained este un site oficial al Eurostat, care prezintă informaţii statistice pe diverse teme, într-un limbaj accesibil. Alături de enciclopedie a statisticilor europene, mai puteţi găsi un glosar cu toţi termenii utilizaţi precum şi linkuri către informaţii suplimentare şi cele mai recente date şi metadate: un portal pentru utilizatorii ocazionali sau frecvenţi.

Pentru a găsi informaţiile de care aveţi nevoie, consultaţi colectia articolelor în limba română sau pentru alte articole in limba engleza utilizaţi structura tematică ierarhică, categoriile sau funcţia de căutare (Alt-f).


Actualizat: Material flow accounts

Materials available to EU-27 economies and how they are used, 2012 (tonnes per capita).png
Eurostat’s economy-wide material flow accounts (EW-MFA) constitute a comprehensive data framework that systematically records the inputs of materials to European economies in a detailed breakdown by material categories such as fossil energy materials, biomass, metal ores etc. Mai mult ...

Actualizat: Living standard statistics

Change in median income in 2011 compared with 2010 after adjusting for inflation.png
This article focuses on living standards in the European Union (EU), as measured by the median equivalised disposable income. Living standards fell in 17 Member States in 2011 compared with a year earlier, after adjusting for inflation. Mai mult ...

Nou: Migrant integration statistics - employment

Evolution of activity rates in EU-28, population aged 20-64 years by broad groups of citizenship, 2007-13.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the employment of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. Mai mult ...

Actualizat: Unemployment statistics

Change in the number of unemployed persons (compared to previous month, in thousands), seasonally adjusted, January 2006 - July 2014.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000.

Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. Mai mult ...

Actualizat: Tourism statistics - nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments

Percentage change in number of nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments, March 2014 compared with March 2013 (%).png
This article focuses on the short-term evolutions in the nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments in the European Union (EU). The data of the most recent reference month available are compared with the same month of the previous year, in addition and to smoothen fluctuations - data for a three months' period are compared with the same period one year earlier. Mai mult ...

Nou: Physical imports and exports

Physical imports and exports of goods by main material category, EU-27, 2000-2012 (tonnes per capita).png
Unlike the EU's monetary value of trade its physical trade balance is asymmetric. The EU imports nearly three times more goods by weight from the rest of the world than it exports. Quantitatively the physical imports into the EU are dominated by fossil fuels Mai mult ...

Nou: Resource productivity statistics

Res Prod compared to GDP and DMC 2000-2012.png
This article presents recent statistics on resource productivity in the European Union (EU) and its Member States. The EU’s resource productivity has increased by 29.2 % in the 2000–12 timeframe. Whereas resource productivity has slowly increased over the years between 2000 and 2007, the sharp increase between 2008 and 2010 was, to a large extent, caused by a decline in various resource-intensive industries during the economic crisis. Mai mult ...

Actualizat: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2002-2014-07-p.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are actual HICP figures. Mai mult ...

Articolul zilei

Wages and labour costs

Median gross hourly earnings, all employees (excluding apprentices), 2010 (1) YB14 II.png
This article compares and contrasts figures on wages and labour costs (employers’ expenditure on personnel) in the European Union (EU) Member States and in EU candidate and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries.

Labour plays a major role in the functioning of an economy. From the point of view of businesses, it represents a cost (labour costs) that includes not only the wages and salaries paid to employees but also non-wage costs, mainly social contributions payable by the employer. Thus, it is a key determinant of business competitiveness, although this is also influenced by the cost of capital (for example interests on loans and dividends on equity) and non-price elements such as innovation and the brand / products positioning on the market.

As far as employees are concerned, the compensation received for their work, more commonly called wages or earnings, generally represents their main source of income and therefore has a major impact on their ability to spend or save. Whereas gross wages / earnings include the social contributions payable by the employee, net earnings are calculated after deduction of these contributions and any amounts which are due to government, such as income taxes. As the amount of taxes generally depends on the situation of the household in terms of income and composition, net earnings are calculated for several typical household situations.

The diagram above summarises the relation between net earnings, gross earnings / wages and labour costs.

Main statistical findings

Labour costs

The average hourly labour cost in the EU-28 was estimated at EUR 23.70 in 2013 and at EUR 28.20 in the euro area (EA-18). However, this average masks significant differences between EU Member States, with hourly labour costs ranging between EUR 3.70 and EUR 40.10 (Figure 1).

Labour costs are made up of costs for wages and salaries plus non-wage costs such as employers’ social contributions. The share of non-wage costs for the whole economy was 23.7% in the EU-28, while it was 25.9 % in the euro area. The share of non-wage costs also varies substantially across EU Member States. The highest shares of non-wage costs for the whole economy were in Sweden (33.3 %), France (32.4 %), Lithuania (28.5%), Italy (28.1 %) Belgium and Slovakia (both 27.4 %). The lowest shares of non-wage costs for the whole economy were recorded for Malta (8.0 %), Denmark (12.4 %), Luxembourg (13.4 %), Ireland (13.8 %), Slovenia (14.7 %), the United Kingdom (15.3 %), Croatia (15.4 %) and Bulgaria (15.8 %). Mai mult ...