Migrant integration statistics - employment
From Statistics Explained
- Data from May 2014. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the employment of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies.
The indicators presented in this article are based on the 2010 Council conclusions on integration, the subsequent study ‘Indicators of immigrant integration — a pilot study’ (2011) and the report ‘Using EU indicators of immigrant integration’ (2013). This article elaborates on practically all existing Zaragoza indicators  on employment except for the ‘over-qualification rate', together with new indicators proposed in the report mentioned . The following indicators are presented in this article:
- unemployment rate;
- employment rate;
- activity rate;
- temporary employment;
- part-time employment;
- long-term unemployment.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
- 7 Notes
Main statistical findings
Labour market participation
The labour market participation measured as the activity rate, represents economically active persons as a percentage of the total population. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.
The activity rate of the EU-28 population varies significantly according to citizenship. As illustrated in the line chart (Figure 1.1), during the last seven years, citizens of non-EU countries have recorded systematically lower activity rates than the national population and mobile EU citizens. Since 2009, this gap has increased noticeably. Compared with the national population, the gap increased from 2.9 percentage points in 2009 to 5.3 percentage points in 2013 (and from 6.6 percentage points in 2009 to 9.4 percentage points in 2013 compared with mobile EU citizens).
In 2013, the activity rate of non-EU citizens decreased further to 71.4 % (from 71.8 % in 2012). There is however a clear opposite trend amongst mobile EU citizens, for whom the activity rate increased from 80.3 % in 2012 to 80.7 % in 2013.
The activity rate of mobile EU citizens over these years was almost 4 percentage points higher than that of the national population, indicating greater labour market participation for this group of migrants.
Looking at the population of the EU-28 Member States by citizenship reveals that specific patterns in activity rates exist in a specific group of countries (table 1.1). In particular in the Mediterranean countries in 2013, the activity rate of the population aged from 20 to 64 years old is higher for foreign citizens (both EU and non-EU citizens) than for those with citizenship of the country of residence. The same can also be said for Eastern European countries such as the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary as well as for Luxembourg and Ireland. In all these countries, except Ireland, third-country nationals also have higher activity rates than the national population. The high activity rate of the foreign population in Ireland is certainly influenced by the economic activity of mobile EU citizens.
The largest difference in participation rate between non-EU citizens and the national population aged 20-64 in 2013, was recorded in Greece (80.9 % vs 72.4 %). Significant differences were also observed in Spain (82.5 % for non-EU citizens and 77.9 % for the national population), as well as Portugal (83.9 % vs. 78.4 %) and Cyprus (82.1 % vs. 79.3 %).
In Italy, Malta and Croatia, the countries with the lowest participation rates of the national population in the EU (67.1 %, 68.9 % and 64.6 % respectively), non-EU citizens are notably more active than the national population aged 20-64 years.
Furthermore, differences are found in countries with high activity rates for the national population, such as Sweden (86.7 %), Denmark (82.7 %), the Netherlands (82.1 %), Estonia (80.7 %), the United Kingdom (80.6 %), Germany (80.6 %), Latvia (80.1 %), Austria (80 %) and Finland (79.5 %). In these countries, activity rates for non-EU citizens range from medium to low (i.e. the Netherlands 61.8 % and Finland 66.6 %), while activity rates for mobile EU citizens are among the highest in the EU-28 (e.g. Denmark 83.3 %, the United Kingdom 84.9 %, Sweden 84.5 % and Austria 81.5 %). The same pattern is also visible in Belgium and France, where the activity rate of foreigners with EU citizenship is similar to that for nationals, but much lower for third-country citizens.
As for the age dimension of the economically active population, it appears that in every EU Member State the activity rate of the population aged 55-64 is significantly lower than for the younger age group. This is the consequence of the retirement benefits available within different Member States. Comparing the elder population (55-64 years) by citizenship, at EU-28 level the labour market participation of mobile EU citizens is higher than that of the national population, while the participation of third-country nationals is slightly lower. However, at country level, significant differences may be observed between nationals and non-EU citizens. The most remarkable differences are observed in Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, Denmark and Belgium, where the national population aged 55-64 years is significantly more active than non-EU nationals while exactly the opposite applies in the Czech Republic, Italy and Greece.
Significant differences come up when the gender dimension is considered. The activity rate of females in 2013 is generally lower than for males, regardless of their country of citizenship. This highlights that gender equality in employment integration has not yet been fully achieved.
This is even more evident for migrant females, since at EU-28 level females with non-EU citizenship have a lower activity rate than male non-EU citizens by 24.3 percentage points, illustrating a wide gap in the labour participation of the migrant population by gender (figure 1.2). At country level, in 2013, the largest gender gaps in labour participation for non-EU citizens are observed in France (34.3 percentage points), Sweden (33.8 percentage points), Belgium (30.6 percentage points), Malta (28.0 percentage points), Greece (29.0 percentage points ) and Germany (27.5percentage points). The countries with the smallest gender gap for the non-EU citizen population are Cyprus (1.3 percentage points), Denmark (9.4 percentage points) and Portugal (9.8 percentage points).
Figure 1.3 shows activity rates for the female population by country of citizenship. It highlights that there are three different patterns among the 24 EU Member States for which data are available. The highest inequalities between these two population groups exist in Belgium (difference of 27.5 percentage points), the Netherlands (25.9 percentage points), Sweden (25 percentage points), Germany (24.9 percentage points), France (24.7 percentage points), Finland (23.4 percentage points) and Croatia (21.8 percentage points), but also in the United Kingdom (16.1 percentage points), Austria (18.8 percentage points) and Denmark (15.5 percentage points). All these countries report high activity rates for the national population as well as for the national female population, indicating that specific integration actions are required for female migrants.
Focusing on the activity rates of first generation migrants  the observed patterns are similar to those of the population by country of citizenship, indicating that the trends are evident (table 1.2). In particular countries with the highest labour market participation rates of the native-born population  are Denmark (82.8 %), the Netherlands (83.1 %), Estonia (80.7 %), Latvia (80.1 %), Sweden (87.8 %), the United Kingdom (81.0 %), Austria (80.3 %) and Finland (79.4 %). In all these countries the activity rates of the non-EU born population are considerably lower than that of the native-born population, with differences ranging from 13.6 percentage points for the Netherlands, 12.9 for Denmark, 9.0 for Austria, 11.4 for Sweden, 8.1 for the United Kingdom, 8.1 for Finland and 8.1 for Latvia.
In Mediterranean countries such as Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal the activity rate of the non-EU born population aged 20-64 was higher in 2013 than the activity rate of the population born in these countries. Particularly in Greece, the participation rate of the native-born population is much lower (72.2 %) than that of the non-EU born population (80.2 %). A similar situation prevails in Spain (77.7 % for the economically active residents born in Spain versus 82.9 % for those born outside the EU), Portugal (78.0 % versus 83.5 %) and Italy (67.1 % versus 72.3 %).
The unemployment rate of non-EU citizens in 2013 was more than 10 percentage points higher than that of the national population.
The unemployment rate is the number of unemployed people as a percentage of the labour force. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.
The overall unemployment rate in the EU-28 for the age group 20-64, in 2013, reached 10.8 %, an increase of 0.4 percentage points compared with 2012. Between 2011 and 2012 unemployment had increased even more (0.8 percentage points).
In 2013, the unemployment rate of non-EU citizens was 21.5 %, the highest unemployment rate by far. This group also suffered from the largest increase in unemployment over the last three years (figure 2.1). The unemployment rate of non-EU citizens was 10 percentage points higher than that of the national population in 2011, a difference that increased to 11.3 percentage points in 2012 and 11.5 percentage points in 2013. The unemployment rate was also higher for mobile EU citizens compared with the national population: 2.4 percentage points more in 2013, 2.6 percentage points more in 2012 and 2.7 percentage points more in 2011.
At country level, in 2013, the lowest unemployment rates for non-EU citizens were recorded in the Czech Republic (6.2 %), Cyprus (9.5 %) and Malta (8.8 %). It is interesting to point out that in the Czech Republic and Cyprus the unemployment rate of third-country nationals was even lower than that of the national population (table 2.1).
The highest unemployment rates for non-EU citizens were reported in Greece and Spain with almost 40 % of active non-EU citizens being unemployed. In 2013, almost one out of three active non-EU citizens was unemployed in Portugal (30.8 %), Sweden (28.7 %) and Belgium (29.7 %).
Regarding the elder active population (55-64 years), although many countries could not provide reliable data for third-country nationals, it seems that unemployment is lower in this age group than in the younger age group. In the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom the unemployment rate is higher for the elder migrant population than for the 25-54 age group. The same pattern exists among the age groups of the national population and mobile EU citizens.
Focusing on the first generation of migrants , although non-migrant women — in most cases — record lower unemployment rates at country level, there are no outstanding differences between EU Member States in comparison with the male rates (table 2.2). The only exceptions are Greece, where the unemployment rate for females is 7.5 percentage points higher than for males and Ireland, where the unemployment rate for females is 5.3 percentage points lower than for males.
The situation is different for non-EU born migrants. The countries with the highest unemployment gaps between non-EU born males and females are Cyprus, Croatia, Portugal, Slovenia and the Czech Republic. In particular, the unemployment rate for females is significantly higher than for males in the Czech Republic (4.2 percentage points)and in Slovenia (10.8 percentage points). The situation is different in Cyprus, Croatia and Portugal, where the male unemployment rate is higher than that for females by 12.6, 7.0 and 4.2 percentage points respectively.
The most significant differences are visible when looking at the female active population by country of birth (figure 2.2). In all countries but Cyprus, the unemployment rate of native-born females is much lower than for those born in a non-EU country. The unemployment gap between these two populations is very high for almost every EU Member State, indicating that female non-EU migrants are in the most precarious position on the labour market.
Youth unemployment for the non-EU born population aged 15-29 has increased by 15.5 percentage points between 2007 and 2013.
The youth population has been significantly affected by unemployment over the last 7 years (11.9 % in 2007 compared with 18.2 % in 2013 for the national population), with the non-EU born youth population showing the largest increase in unemployment (15.3 % in 2007 compared with 30.8 % in 2013) (figure 2.3).
In particular, in 2013, the unemployment rate of the native-born youth population was 18.2 % compared with 30.8 % for non-EU born youths — a difference of 12.6 percentage points between these two population groups (figure 2.4).
The unemployment rate of foreign EU born  youths is however very similar to that of the native-born population aged 15-29 years. This pattern is observed in most EU Member States with the exception of the Czech Republic, Ireland and Cyprus where the unemployment rate of the youth population is higher for the native born  than for the non-EU born (5.5 percentage points in the Czech Republic, 5.9 in Ireland and 9.9 in Cyprus).
Long-term unemployment, as a percentage of total unemployment, has increased for the non-EU born population from 28.5 % in 2009 to 48.9 % in 2013, after a period of decrease from 2007 to 2009.
Long-term unemployment at EU-28 level has been increasing constantly over the last four years for all unemployed active individuals aged 20-64 years, regardless of their country of birth (foreign EU born/non-EU born migrant or native born). Although the pattern is similar for these three population groups (figure 2.5) the evolution was more evident for the non-migrant population . Long-term unemployment among the population aged 20-64 was 45.8 % in 2007, decreasing to 35.1 % in 2009, but then rapidly increasing to 41.7 % in 2010 and 44.9 % in 2011, before reaching 49.4 % in 2013 (almost half of the EU's unemployed non-migrant population). Although long-term unemployment for non-EU born migrants was lower over these 7 years, it was more affected by long-term unemployment than the population born in the reporting country. In 2013, long-term unemployment for this group was 20.4 percentage points higher than in 2009.
The cross-country comparison of the share of long-term unemployment in 2013 depicts a situation that varies significantly across those EU Member States for which data are available. In 10 countries in particular, the share of long-term unemployment is lower for the non-EU born population aged 20-64 compared with the native-born population. The most significant difference is observed in Luxembourg (the percentage of long-term unemployment of non-EU born population was more than 10 percentage points lower) and Ireland (8.3 percentage points) but the share is also considerably lower in the United Kingdom (4.8 percentage points) and Italy (6.5 percentage points).
In several other countries however the non-EU born population has been more affected by long-term unemployment than the native born population. The largest gaps are found in the Czech Republic (16.5 percentage points), the Netherlands (13.3 percentage points), Sweden (12.5 percentage points) and Belgium (10.6 percentage points) (figure 2.6).
Long-term unemployment affects the elder population group more than others, regardless of their country of birth (table 2.3). According to the available data on the non-EU born elder population (aged 55-64), the share of long term unemployment in all EU Member States is higher than for the younger non-EU born population (age 25-54 years). The biggest differences — almost 20 percentage points — are found in Croatia and Portugal. Lower but significant differences also exist in the United Kingdom (18.9 percentage points) and Sweden (17.7 percentage points).
Employment and self-employment
In 2013, the employment rate of non-EU citizens in the EU-28 was 56 % compared with 68.9 % of the national population, while significant dissimilarities exist between males and females.
The employment rate represents persons in employment as a percentage of the population of working age. This indicator is one of the key Zaragoza indicators.
In 2013, the EU employment rate of nationals aged 20-64 was higher (68.9 %) than that for all foreign citizens  (61.8 %). However, within the foreign population the employment rate of mobile EU citizens  was slightly higher than the employment rate of nationals (70.7 %). Therefore, the significantly lower employment rate of the foreign population is a direct result of the much lower employment rate of third-country nationals. In 2013, only 56 % of non-EU citizens were employed (table 3.1).
Furthermore, the employment rate of foreign females is significantly lower than for foreign males. This pattern also exists within the national population: the employment rate of female nationals stood at 63.3 %, almost 11 percentage points lower than the male rate (74.5 %), while the employment rate of foreign females stood at 53.3 % compared with 70.7 % for foreign males, a difference of more than 15 percentage points.
The exact same pattern is observed in the employment rate of male and female mobile EU citizens: the rate for female foreign EU citizens is almost 15 percentage points lower than for males (63.8 % and 78.0 %). This difference is even higher for third-country citizens, where the employment rate of males is 20 percentage points higher than that of females (66.0 % and 46.6 % respectively).
At country level, the biggest employment rate differences between third-country male and female citizens are found in Poland (males: 81.9 %, females: 42.3 %), Slovenia (males: 81.9 %, females: 33.0 %), the Czech Republic (males 90.2 %, females 66.1 %), Germany (males: 70.3 %, females: 47.2 %), Italy (males: 72.0 %, females 48.4 %) and Belgium (males: 50.1 %, females: 29.6 %). Cyprus is the only EU Member State where the employment rate of third-country female citizens is higher than that of males (males: 70 %, females: 75.8 %).
The employment rate for the non-EU born population has decreased by 7.1 percentage points since 2007.
In many EU Member States, there is a considerable gap in employment levels between the non-EU born and EU-born populations (foreign EU born and native born population). In 2013, the employment rate of the non-EU born population aged 20-64 was about 10 percentage points lower than that of the population born in the reporting country and the foreign EU born population of the same age group at EU level. In particular, the employment rate of the non EU-born population was 58.7 %, versus 68.8 % for the EU-born population and 69.0 % for the native born population.
The employment rate has been decreasing since 2007 for all three population groups aged 20-64 by country of birth (figure 3.1). The employment rate of the native born population has decreased by 1.3 percentage points since 2007, while the rate of the foreign EU born population has decreased by 2.5 percentage points, while remaining higher than the rate of the native born and the foreign non-EU born population. Furthermore, the employment rate decrease for the population not born in the EU (7.5 percentage points) is more significant than the decrease for the other population groups.
At almost 60 %, Cyprus, Estonia and Malta report the EU-28’s highest youth employment rates for the non-EU born population aged 15-29 years (figure 3.2). In Cyprus, Malta and Croatia the youth employment rate of non-EU born migrants is higher than that of foreign youths born in the EU. In Cyprus the employment rate of non-EU born migrants is even higher than that of native-born youths (by 19 percentage points).
In the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Belgium and Sweden the largest differences in employment rates are found between the native-born and non-EU born population, ranging from 20 percentage points in the Netherlands to 11 percentage points in Sweden.
The lowest employment rates of youth migrants not born in the EU are observed in Belgium, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Ireland, Portugal and Hungary (all under 40 %).
During the last decade, the share of the self-employed has been constantly increasing in the EU-28, by 1.3 percentage points for non-EU citizens and by 1.7 percentage points for the national population.
The share of the self-employed over all employed persons for non-EU citizens decreased by 1.8 percentage points from 2003 to 2004, since when it has increased slightly every year, reaching 11.5 % in 2013. The respective share for the national population reached its peak in 2006, when 15.13 % of the total employed national population was self-employed. Since then, the share of self-employment has remained almost stable, with only a marginal decrease in 2013 compared with 2012 (figure 3.3).
At country level, the highest self-employment shares for the national population are observed in Greece (almost 35 %) and Italy (almost 25 %) (figure 3.4). The lowest self-employment shares in the EU-28 Member States are found in Luxembourg, Denmark, Estonia and Sweden, with less than 10 %. The highest self-employment shares of non-EU citizens are recorded in the Czech Republic and Romania (almost 40 %), Poland and Bulgaria (33.7 % and 24.8 % respectively).
In absolute terms, about 30.5 million individuals were self-employed in the EU-28 in 2013 (table 3.2). Almost 28.5 million of them were citizens of their country of residence and less than 2 million were migrants (EU and non-EU citizens) with approximately a million being mobile EU citizens and about 892 000 non-EU citizens (table 3.2). At country level, Italy is the EU-28 Member State with the largest self-employed population (over 4.8 million), corresponding to almost 8 % of the total self-employed population in the EU. Germany and the United Kingdom follow with approximately 3.9 and 3.8 million individuals respectively.
As regards the specific self-employment status for the year 2013, self-employment appears mostly as a matter of own-account work, since the share of own-account workers in the total self-employed population stood at around 70 % for nationals, foreign citizens and mobile EU citizens. The share of self-employed persons with employees was less than 30 % of the total self-employed population in all cases (figure 3.5).
Part-time and temporary employment
Part-time and temporary employment may be considered either as a threat or as an opportunity for employees, since these indicators can be seen either as a means of social integration or as an indicator of under-employment. Insights into the nature of temporary employment can be gained by inspecting the composition of temporary employment in terms of age.
At EU-28 level, temporary employment is higher for third-country nationals (20.4 %) than for employees who are national citizens (12.4 %). The largest difference is observed in Cyprus, where 79.2 % of employees with non-EU citizenship are temporary workers, compared with only 10.0 % for the national population, indicating that in that country migrants might be trapped in a situation of under-employment. In 21 out of 28 Member States that could provide reliable data, large gaps in temporary employment between non-EU citizens and the national population are also reported in Sweden (22.6 percentage points), Slovenia (19.6 percentage points), Belgium (18.0 percentage points), Finland (17.7 percentage points), Spain (17.1 percentage points) and Portugal (16.4 percentage points). In other countries the differences are below 15 percentage points, but in all of them the share of migrant temporary workers (both EU and non-EU citizens) is higher than that of the national population.
In addition, a strong age pattern may be observed within temporary employment data, since there is a strong over-representation of the younger population in temporary employment within the employed population (table 3.3). This is even more evident amongst third-country nationals.
Considering the temporary employed population by country of birth (table 3.4), there are similar patterns when compared with the population by country of citizenship (table 3.3), although the differences are not that significant. The figure for non-EU born individuals was only higher — compared with the native born population — in 4 out of the 22 countries that could provide temporary employment data by country of birth. These countries include Cyprus (10.1 % compared to 58.4 % for non-EU born), Spain (21.0 % compared to 34.9 %), Finland (13.6 % compared to 27.2 %) and Sweden (13.2 % compared to 24.7 %).
Temporary youth employment
At EU-28 level, temporary employment for the youth population has decreased by 5.1 percentage points from 2007 to 2013 for the non-EU born youth population and by 4.4 percentage points for the foreign EU-born youth population (figure 3.6). By contrast, the proportion of temporary employment for the youth population born in the country of residence has slightly increased (+1.1 percentage points).
At the country level different patterns stand out when country of birth and gender are examined (figure 3.7). The highest proportions of temporary employment in the youth population are found in Spain, the Netherlands, Slovenia and Sweden (close to 50 % of total employment for both genders, regardless of the country of birth). In general, the non-EU born youth population has higher shares of temporary employment regardless of gender. In 2013, 35.7 % of non-EU born young females were temporary workers versus 34.5 % for native-born females and 35.3 % of non-EU born young males compared with 30.4 % of native-born males. In Cyprus, the high share of temporary employment in the young population results from high temporary employment among the non-EU born youth population (70.1 % for females and 50.5 % for males).
Part-time employment of migrant workers in the EU is increasing more rapidly than for the national population.
The proportion of part-time employment in the EU has been steadily increasing over recent years. This trend has mostly affected the migrant population, with an increasing gap between part-time employment of migrant and non-migrant workers. In 2013, 24.7 % of non-EU born employees were working part-time compared with 22.3 % of EU-born migrants, a 6.2 percentage point increase compared to 2007 for the former and a 4.3 percentage point increase for the latter (figure 3.8).
The proportion of part-time employment among the foreign employed population (mobile EU and non-EU citizens) is higher than for nationals, especially for the age group 55-64: 29.2 % of mobile EU citizens and 29.8 % of non-EU citizens. However, in some EU Member States the trends are reversed (table 3.5). Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom report higher part-time employment among the national employed population (24.1 %, 22.3 %, 47.1 % and 24.3 %) than among employed foreign citizens (23.5 %, 14.6 %, 43.5 % and 22.6 %).
Looking into the age categories at EU level, foreign employees have a significantly higher proportion of part-time employment at the age of 25-54 than the national population (25.3 % and 16.9 % respectively). Furthermore, the highest percentages of part-time employees are observed for foreigners with non-EU citizenship (27.0 %). Looking at individual EU Member States, Cyprus (10.6 %), Luxembourg (21.4 %), the United Kingdom (21.9 %) and the Netherlands (43.9 %) show higher figures among the national population for the 25-54 age group.
For the 55-64 age group, part-time employment in the EU-28 Member States is higher for national employees. This trend is reversed in Spain (national population: 7.0 % / foreign citizens: 23.2 %), Greece (national population: 11.3 % / foreign citizens: 17.9 %) and Italy (national population: 12.7 % / foreign citizens: 19.7 %) where foreign employees outnumber national employees.
In 2013 the proportion of part-time employment for foreign female employees in the EU (41.5 %), was higher than for female employees with citizenship of the country of residence (30.9 %).
However, in countries such as Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria and the United Kingdom the proportion of part-time employment of female foreign citizens was lower than that for nationals. A similar trend can also be observed for the foreign male employed population. In the EU-28, the proportion of part-time employment of male foreign workers (13.5 %) was higher than for male nationals (7.7 %) (table 3.6).
The proportion of part-time employment amongst the foreign-born workforce in the 20-64 age group was higher (25.6 %) than for native-born employees (18.0 %).
The reverse can be observed in Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, where the rates for the native born population in part-time employment are higher (22.1 %, 47.1 % and 24.2 % respectively) than that for the foreign-born population (15.2 %, 46 % and 3.8 % respectively). The proportion of part-time employees born in third-countries was higher (24.7 %) than for the EU-born employed population (21.2 %) (table 3.7).
Comparing the 2013 part-time employment of the male and female population born in a third-country, across the EU Member States for which data are available, the proportions of part-time employment for non-EU born females are higher than for non-EU born males (figure 3.9). The widest gender gaps can be found in the Netherlands (45.2 percentage points), Austria (35.2 percentage points), Belgium (32.5 percentage points) and Italy (30.5 percentage points), while the narrowest are in Croatia (2.1 percentage points) and Latvia (4.7 percentage points). Cyprus is an exception with part-time employment higher in the male population (males 13.2 % and females 8.2 %).
Youth part-time employment
Youth (aged 15-29) part-time employment as a percentage of total employment has been increasing over the last seven years of available data, regardless of the country of birth of the employed population (figure 3.10). However, the share of part-time employment among the non-EU born employed youth population is higher than among the non-migrant and EU born migrant youth populations.
While only 22.8 % of the employed native born youth population worked part-time in the EU-28 in 2013, the corresponding proportion for non-EU born youths was 31.4 % (table 3.8).
Countries with the highest proportions of part-time employment among the youth population were Denmark (51.7 %) and the Netherlands (63.3 %). In turn, the shares of part-time employment for non-EU born youths in these two countries were also high.
Data sources and availability
The main data source for employment is the EU labour force survey (EU-LFS). The LFS is a large quarterly sample survey that covers the resident population aged 15 and above in private households in the EU-28, EFTA (except Liechtenstein) and Candidate countries. It provides population estimates for the main labour market characteristics, such as employment, unemployment, inactivity, hours of work, occupation, economic activity and other labour related variables, as well as important socio-demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, household characteristics and regions of residence. Regulations set by the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission define how the LFS is carried out, whereas some countries have their own national legislation for the implementation of this survey. The key advantage using LFS data is that it is a survey which is highly harmonized and optimized for comparability. However, there is a certain type of limitations deriving, mainly with respect to the coverage of migrant populations. By design, both the LFS target the whole resident population and not specifically the migrants. Coverage issues of survey data arise in the following cases:
- Recently arrived migrants: this group of migrants is missing from the sampling frame in every hosting country resulting in under-coverage of the actual migrant population in the LFS.
- Non-response of migrant population: A significant disadvantage of the surveys is the high percentage of non-response among the migrant population, due to language difficulties, misunderstanding of the purpose of each survey, arduousness in communicating with the interviewer, and fear on behalf of migrants of a possible negative impact on their authorisation to remain in the country in case of participation.
- Sample size: given the nature of the LFS as sample survey, this cannot fully capture the characteristics of the migrants in Member States with very low migrant populations.
The article focuses on comparisons between national and migrant population (non-EU citizens and foreign EU citizens) with the relevant breakdowns by age and gender. The indicators are calculated for two broad groups of the migrant population. The first one is the foreign population by country of birth (COB) and the second one is the foreign population by country of citizenship (COC). Notably, the breakdowns for EU include EU-27 instead of EU-28 aggregates since the latter are not yet available in Eurobase. In addition, four age groups are mainly discussed:
- 15-29: this group represents the population of young migrants and is targeted by the EU Youth Strategy
- 20-64: this group has been selected because it is relevant to the first Europe 2020 target (employment of 75 % of this population by 2020).
- 25-54: this is considered as the most appropriate group for the analysis of the situation of migrants of working age. It minimizes the effect of migration related to non-economic reasons (e.g. study or retirement) and forms a more homogenous group, large enough to produce reliable results.
- 55-64: this age group focuses on the older migrants.
The indicators in this article use the definitions of the Zaragoza indicators. The above age group may not be same as used in Eurostat labour market statistics. For this reason results may differ from other results disseminated by Eurostat.
There is a strong link between integration, migration and employment policies since successful integration is necessary for maximising the economic and social benefits of immigration for European Union societies and economies.
The importance of integration of third-country nationals legally living in the EU Member States and the establishment of policies for a secure labour environment for the migrants has seen a considerable development in 2000 when the ‘Racial Equality Directive’ (2000/43/EC) and the ‘Employment Equality Directive’ (2000/78/EC) were adopted in order to prohibit discrimination in employment, occupation, social protection education and access to public goods on the grounds of religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation, race and ethnic origin.
In 2010, in order to enable migrants to take full advantage of their potential 'Europe 2020, a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth' was set as a foundation for the migrants to achieve the objective of 'an inclusive high employment society' of Europe 2020 and the target of reaching 75 % employment by 2020. In July 2011, the Commission proposed a 'European agenda for the integration of third-country nationals', focusing on actions to increase economic, social, cultural and political participation by migrants and emphasising local action. This new agenda highlights challenges that need to be addressed if the EU is willing to fully benefit from the potential offered by migration and the value of diversity. It also explores the role of countries of origin in the integration process.
With regard to the measurement of migrant integration, the Stockholm Programme for the period 2010-14 (2009) embraced the development of core indicators in a limited number of relevant policy areas including employment, education and social inclusion for the monitoring of the results of integration policies. Through the 2010 Zaragoza Declaration (and the subsequent Council conclusions) Member States identified a number of common indicators (the so-called Zaragoza indicators) and called upon the Commission to undertake a pilot study examining proposals for common integration indicators and reporting on the availability and quality of the data from agreed harmonised sources necessary for the calculation of these indicators. The proposals in the pilot study were further examined and developed in the recently published report 'Using EU indicators of immigrant integration'. The indicators used in this article are largely based on this report.
The EU legislation provides a framework regarding the conditions of entry and stay and a common set of rights for certain categories of migrants. Some of the most important legal texts relevant to migrants’ employment are the following:
- Directive 2014/66/EU defining conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals in the framework of an intra-corporate transfer
- Directive 2014/36/EU on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of seasonal employment
- Directive 2011/98/EU on a single application procedure for a single permit to reside and work in the EU and on a common set of rights for third-country workers
- Directive 2009/50/EC concerning the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly qualified employment, commonly called 'Blue Card directive'
- Directive 2003/86/EC on the right to family reunification
- Directive 2000/43/EC on racial equality
- Directive 2000/78/EC on employment equality
- Migrant integration statistics
- Migration and migrant population statistics
- Migrant remittance and cross-border or seasonal compensation transfer statistics
- Unemployment statistics
Further Eurostat information
- Indicators of immigrant integration — a pilot study (PDF download)
- Migrants in Europe — A statistical portrait of the first and second generation, 2011 edition (PDF download)
- Statistics in focus 2012: EU Member states granted citizenship to more than 800 000 persons in 2010 (PDF download)
- Statistics in focus 2012: Nearly two-thirds of the foreigners living in EU Member States are citizens of countries outside the EU-27 — Issue number 31/2012 (PDF download)
- Statistics in focus 2011, 6.5 % of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4 % are born abroad — Issue number 34/2011 (PDF download)
- Social inclusion (mii_soinc)
- Education (mii_educ)
- Employment (mii_emp)
- Activity rates (mii_act)
- Unemployment (mii_une)
- Employment and self-employment (mii_em)
- Employment rates by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_ergan)
- Employment rates by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_ergacob)
- Long-term unemployment (12 months or more) as a percentage of the total unemployment, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_upgan)
- Long-term unemployment (12 months or more) as a percentage of the total Unemployment, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_upgacob)
- Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_eppgan)
- Part-time employment as percentage of the total employment, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_eppgacob)
- Self-employment by sex, age and country of birth (1 000) (lfsa_esgacob)
- Self-employment by sex, age and nationality (1 000) (lfsa_esgan)
- Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, by sex, age and nationality (%) (lfsa_etpgan)
- Temporary employees as percentage of the total number of employees, by sex, age and country of birth (%) (lfsa_etpgacob)
Methodology / Metadata
- LFS series — Detailed annual survey results (ESMS metadata file — employ)
Source data for tables, figures and maps (MS Excel)
- 5th Annual Report on Immigration and Asylum (2013) (PDF download)
- Conclusions on Integration as a Driver for Development and Social Cohesion
- Migrant integration — DG Home Affairs
- Using EU Indicators of Immigrant Integration - final report prepared for DG Home Affairs (PDF download)
- Indicators for the Integration of Migrants and their Children — OECD
- Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) — ILO
- Migrant European website on integration
- Eurostat dedicated section: Migrant integration indicators
- International Labour Organization
- Set of common indicators agreed by EU Member States in the 2010 Zaragoza Declaration
- See the subset of the proposed new indicators in the report ‘Using EU Indicators of Immigrant Integration’ (2013).
- National population means the population of citizens of the reporting country.
- Mobile EU citizens means EU citizens who are citizens of a different EU country than the reporting EU country.
- Foreign population by country of birth is the population most commonly described as migrants, as these persons have migrated to their current country of residence at some stage during their lives. It includes persons with foreign citizenship as well as persons with the citizenship of their country of residence, either from birth or acquired later in life.
- Native-born population means the population born in the reporting country.
- Population by country of birth.
- Foreign EU born population means the population born in an EU country other than the reporting country.
- Native born population means the population born in the reporting country.
- Non-migrant population in the context of country of birth means the population born in the reporting country.
- Foreign citizens means all persons with foreign citizenship residing in the reporting country, i.e. non-EU citizens and foreign EU citizens.
- EU citizens from another country than the reporting EU country.