Mining and quarrying statistics - NACE Rev. 2
From Statistics Explained
- Data from April 2013. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database
Main statistical findings
There were 20 thousand enterprises operating with mining and quarrying (Section B) as their main activity in the EU-27 in 2010. Together they employed 615 thousand persons, equivalent to 0.5 % of all persons employed in the non-financial business economy (Sections B to J and L to N and Division 95), while they generated EUR 84.2 billion of value added which was 1.4 % of the non-financial business economy total.
The apparent labour productivity of the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector in 2010 was EUR 137 thousand per person employed, 3.1 times as high as the non-financial business economy average of EUR 44.8 thousand per person employed and the second highest ratio among the NACE sections that compose the non-financial business economy — behind electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning (EUR 175 thousand per person employed). Average personnel costs within the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector (EUR 37.5 thousand per employee) were not particularly far above the average for the whole of the non-financial business economy (EUR 30.9 thousand per employee). The wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio combines the two previous indicators and shows the extent to which value added per person employed covers average personnel costs per employee. Due to the high productivity and only slightly elevated average personnel costs the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector in 2010 had a wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio of 365 %, which was the highest ratio across any of the NACE sections within the non-financial business economy.
The gross operating rate (which measures the relation between the gross operating surplus and turnover) is one measure of profitability; it stood at 28.3 % for the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector in 2010, which was 2.8 times as high as the non-financial business economy average (10.1 %) and the second highest level of profitability (using this measure) among any of the NACE sections within the non-financial business economy behind real estate activities (Section L). It should be noted that this measure does not take account of depreciation or financial expenditure, which are typically higher in capital-intensive activities.
Almost 9 out of every 10 (89.4 %) enterprises within the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector extracted materials that were non-metallic and not fossil fuels and were thus classified in other mining and quarrying (Division 08) — these enterprises were relatively small in size. The two largest subsectors in terms of employment were the mining of coal and lignite (Division 05) and other mining and quarrying, each occupying more than one third of the mining and quarrying workforce. In output terms, the relative importance of the extraction of fossil fuels was far greater, as the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas (Division 06) accounted for 59.4 % of EU-27 sectoral value added, while a further 12.5 % of sectoral added value was derived from the mining of coal and lignite. Mining support service activities (Division 09) and the mining of metal ores (Division 07, 2009 data) each accounted for less than one tenth of the sector’s value added and employment.
As can be seen from Figure 1, the contribution of the various subsectors to the EU-27’s mining and quarrying total varied considerably depending on whether value added or employment was the basis for the analysis. The variation in the relative importance of the different subsectors was even more amplified for some of the derived indicators concerning personnel costs, labour productivity and profitability, as shown in the second half of Table 2.
The high apparent labour productivity figure for the whole of the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector (EUR 137 thousand per person employed in 2010) was pulled upwards by the subsector for the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas where apparent labour productivity reached EUR 682.7 thousand per person employed, nearly four times as high as for any other NACE division within the whole of the non-financial business economy. Mining support service activities also recorded relatively high apparent labour productivity (EUR 117.1 thousand per person employed), while the mining of coal and lignite had the lowest apparent labour productivity among the mining and quarrying NACE divisions, with a ratio (EUR 53.2 thousand per person employed) that was nevertheless above the non-financial business economy average (EUR 44.8 thousand per person employed).
At the NACE division level, personnel costs per employee in the EU-27 peaked at an average of EUR 70.7 thousand per employee for the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas in 2010, ahead of mining support service activities (EUR 53.8 thousand per employee). The mining of metal ores subsector (2009 data) and the other mining and quarrying subsector reported average personnel costs that were slightly above the non-financial business economy average (EUR 30.9 thousand per employee). A somewhat lower level of average personnel costs was recorded for the mining of coal and lignite (EUR 28.1 thousand per employee), in part reflecting the geographical distribution of this activity, which is largely concentrated in eastern Europe.
For all of the mining and quarrying NACE divisions, EU-27 wage-adjusted labour productivity ratios exceeded the non-financial business economy average (144.8 %). This ratio ranged from 160.3 % for the mining of coal and lignite to 965.7 % for the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas in 2010.
The EU-27 gross operating rate was also consistently higher across all four subsectors in 2010 when compared with the average rate for the whole of the non-financial business economy (10.1 %), as profitability (using this measure) ranged from 14.2 % for other mining and quarrying to 31.4 % for the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas.
With oil and gas fields off its east coast it is unsurprising that the United Kingdom recorded the highest share (37.4 %) of EU-27 value added within the mining and quarrying sector in 2010. Denmark and the Netherlands (predominantly natural gas), as well as Germany and Poland (predominantly coal and lignite), were also relatively important producers within the EU in value added terms. The Polish mining and quarrying workforce of 176.6 thousand persons was equivalent to more than one quarter (28.7 %) of the EU-27 total, and was followed by Germany (11.7 %) and Romania (11.1 %). The five largest Member States in the mining and quarrying sector accounted for a higher share of EU-27 value added and employment than was typical for the non-financial business economy as a whole (see Figure 3), underlining the geographical concentration and specialisation that exists within this sector.
The relative importance of the mining and quarrying sector across the EU Member States tended to be highest among those countries specialised in the extraction of fossil fuels: in value added terms Romania, Denmark, Poland, Bulgaria, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands were most specialised Member States for mining and quarrying in 2010, along with Norway and Croatia. These figures were closely linked to the geological distribution of fossil fuel deposits which were scarce or non-existent in many of the Member States. In value added terms, Bulgaria was specialised in the extraction of metal ores, while Latvia and Cyprus recorded some of the highest specialisation ratios with respect to other mining and quarrying. Among the Member States, Slovakia, the United Kingdom, Romania and the Netherlands were the most specialised in mining support service activities, although Norway had a much higher degree of specialisation.
These various specialisations are reflected in the derived indicators shown in Table 4b. For example, Member States with a high degree of specialisation in the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas recorded high apparent labour productivity for mining and quarrying as a whole, as can be seen for Denmark, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as well as for Norway.
Size class analysis
The enterprise size structure of the EU-27’s mining and quarrying sector would appear to be dominated by large enterprises (employing 250 or more persons) — just over three fifths (63.5 %) of sectoral value added was generated by some 230 large enterprises and these employed nearly two thirds (66.7 %) of the workforce in 2010; for comparison, the non-financial business economy average for large enterprise was a two fifths (42.3 %) share of value added and a one third (32.5 %) share of the workforce.
However, this overall situation for mining and quarrying is a combination of different structures in the subsectors within the EU-27. Some activities are particularly concentrated in only a few locations and characterised by a high dominance of large enterprises: for the mining and quarrying of metal ores these contributed around 94.0 % (2009 data) of value added while for the mining of coal and lignite they contributed 97.6 % in 2010. The extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas as well as mining support service activities were also relatively concentrated among large enterprises with 62.2 % and 60.5 % respectively of their value added generated by large enterprises in 2009. On the other hand, the local sourcing of many construction materials and a range of chemical and fertiliser minerals are characterised by widespread availability, relatively high transport costs and low barriers to entry, reflected in a higher degree of importance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, employing fewer than 250 persons) in other mining and quarrying, where SMEs accounted for nearly four fifths of sectoral value added.
Among the EU Member States, the relative importance of SMEs and large enterprises reflects to some extent their specialisations. For example, Poland and Romania recorded value added shares of large enterprises in excess of 90 %, reflecting in part the specialisation of these Member States in the extraction of coal and or crude petroleum and natural gas where large enterprises are typically found. High shares of value added for large enterprises were recorded in other countries with relatively high specialisations in other activities that are characterised by the presence of large enterprises, for example, coal and lignite mining in the Czech Republic and Germany, the extraction of metal ores in Bulgaria, or the extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas in the United Kingdom.
The region of Śląskie in southern Poland (whose capital city is Katowice) recorded the highest number of persons employed, across NUTS level 2 regions within the EU-27, for the mining and quarrying sector in 2010. With 113.3 thousand persons, Śląskie accounted for approximately 18 % of the total number of persons employed in the EU-27 in this sector. The second highest number of persons employed (28.4 thousand) across the EU regions was recorded for North Eastern Scotland in the United Kingdom, which is home to much of the British North Sea oil and gas operations, although there was a larger workforce in the Norwegian region of Agder og Rogaland. Most of the remaining EU regions with large workforces in this sector were in Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Germany and Bulgaria. As such, and contrary to most of the other NACE sections within the non-financial business economy (except for the electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply sector), the highest levels of labour input for the mining and quarrying sector were often recorded in regions within those Member States that joined the EU in 2004 or 2007. Excluding two Norwegian regions in the top 20, the remaining 18 regions together accounted for 51 % of the EU-27’s mining and quarrying workforce, underlining the concentration of large parts of mining and quarrying in a relatively small number of regions.
The relative importance of the mining and quarrying sector can be analysed by comparing the employment of this sector with the non-financial business economy workforce. Among the 188 NUTS level 2 regions for which data are available in 2010, the median share of the mining and quarrying sector in the non-financial business economy workforce was 0.3 %. In the vast majority of regions, the mining and quarrying sector accounted for less than 1.0 % of the non-financial business economy workforce. Indeed, the mining and quarrying sector accounted for 1.0 % or more of the non-financial business economy workforce in just 20 of the 188 regions for which data are available across the EU-27.
In keeping with the ranking of employment levels, the contribution of the mining and quarrying sector to non-financial business economy employment was relatively high in several of the Member States that joined the EU in 2004 or 2007. However, the highest share was recorded in North Eastern Scotland where the mining and quarrying sector employed 13.9 % of the non-financial business economy workforce. This was followed by the region with the largest workforce, namely Śląskie, where 10.0 % of the workforce was employed in the mining and quarrying sector. The shares in these two regions were far higher than in other regions, as the third highest share was 5.9 % in Sud-Vest Oltenia in Romania.
At the other end of the range, there were 58 NUTS level 2 regions in the EU-27 (subject to data availability) where the mining and quarrying sector accounted for 0.1 % or less of the non-financial business economy workforce in 2010. A total of 11 of these had less than 0.05 % of their non-financial business economy workforce operating within the mining and quarrying sector, and these were all in Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria and the United Kingdom.
Data sources and availability
Mining and quarrying, covers NACE Rev. 2 Section B. This activity concerns the extraction of:
- fossil fuels such as coal (Division 05), crude petroleum and natural gas (Division 06);
- ferrous and non-ferrous metal ores (Division 07);
- construction materials (for example, stone and sand) and other industrial materials such as salt, phosphates and gemstones (Division 08);
- it also includes mining support service activities (Division 09).
Note that this article only covers extractive activities, and not the downstream processing of fuel, nor the manufacture of non-metallic mineral products, both of which are classified under manufacturing (Section C), nor the network supply of energy (Section D).
The analysis presented in this article is based on the main dataset for structural business statistics (SBS), size class data and regional data, all of which are published annually.
The main series provides information for each EU Member State as well as a number of non-member countries at a detailed level according to the activity classification NACE. Data are available for a wide range of variables.
In structural business statistics, size classes are generally defined by the number of persons employed. A limited set of the standard structural business statistics variables (for example, the number of enterprises, turnover, persons employed and value added) are analysed by size class, mostly down to the three-digit (group) level of NACE. The main size classes used in this article for presenting the results are:
- small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): with 1 to 249 persons employed, further divided into;
- micro enterprises: with less than 10 persons employed;
- small enterprises: with 10 to 49 persons employed;
- medium-sized enterprises: with 50 to 249 persons employed;
- large enterprises: with 250 or more persons employed.
Regional SBS data are available at NUTS levels 1 and 2 for most of the EU Member States, Norway and Croatia, mostly down to the two-digit (division) level of NACE. The main variable analysed in this article is the number of persons employed. The type of statistical unit used for regional SBS data is normally the local unit, which is an enterprise or part of an enterprise situated in a geographically identified place. Local units are classified into sectors (by NACE) normally according to their own main activity, but in some EU Member States the activity code is assigned on the basis of the principal activity of the enterprise to which the local unit belongs. The main SBS data series are presented at national level only, and for this national data the statistical unit is the enterprise. It is possible for the principal activity of a local unit to differ from that of the enterprise to which it belongs. Hence, national SBS data from the main series are not necessarily directly comparable with national aggregates compiled from regional SBS.
The location of mining and quarrying generally reflects the spatial distribution of mineral deposits. However, there can be considerable cost differences between mines, for example, in relation to the depth at which deposits are found, or whether they are on land or at sea. Aside from geographical and geological cost differences, the decision of whether or not to (re-)open a mine may also depend, among others, on global, commodity prices, employment practices, as well as regulations concerning the environmental impact of mining or the disposal of its waste. Opencast (or surface) mines and quarries are generally cheaper than deep mines — although they may be rejected in the planning stage due to their effect on local landscapes. All forms of mining and quarrying incur environmental costs, which may relate to the disposal of waste, increased pollution, potential for ground subsidence, or changes to the local supply and quality of water.
The mining and quarrying sector is characterised as a capital-intensive activity. This is particularly the case for projects that require exploration and test drilling in advance of the considerable investment required to establish a new mine or off-shore drilling facility. As such, the global mining and quarrying sector is characterised by a relatively small number of international enterprise groups that operate across the continents — some with extraction and/or support service operations in the EU. These large-scale producers are particularly common in the extraction of fossil fuels. The vast majority of hard coal and lignite that is extracted or imported into the EU is consumed as a transformation input, mostly used in conventional thermal power stations or in coke oven plants. Over several decades the EU’s coal mining activity has been in decline due to competition from coal imports and the substitution of other fuels to produce electricity, the latter stimulated in part by efforts to reduce emissions. Crude oil is essentially a transformation input, used in refineries. Despite increased prices in recent years stimulating exploration and increasing the economic viability of existing fields, extraction of oil and gas by EU Member States started to decline around the turn of the millennium.
Many of the products resulting from the activity of this sector are traded globally and prices are established on global markets. One of the most closely followed prices is the price of crude oil, which is not only of interest for this sector itself, but also for the many downstream activities that are intensive users of energy as well as the chemicals sector that uses petroleum as a raw material.
The extraction of construction materials is dominated by a large number of smaller enterprises, typically serving a local market in low-value, widely-available products. Whilst the EU is largely self-sufficient in the extraction of construction materials, there are a large number of other minerals that are essential for downstream manufacturing activities for which there is no indigenous supply within the EU; for example the EU has high net imports of metallic minerals. Other industrial minerals are often further processed in downstream industrial sectors, for example, in the manufacture of glass, concrete and basic or agricultural chemicals. Minerals are also used in industrial processes and precious and semi-precious stones and metals are used in jewellery and for some industrial processes.
Policies related to energy and to climate change are particularly important for many parts of the mining and quarrying sector. The EU aims to become a low-carbon, energy-efficient economy in the coming decades. The integrated energy and climate change policy laid out in December 2008 aims to cut greenhouse gases by 20 %, reduce energy consumption by 20 % through increased energy efficiency and to meet 20 % of the EU’s energy needs from renewable sources by 2020 — these goals will have implications on the way extractive activities operate. In a Communication in November 2010 the European Commission presented its Energy 2020 strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy — see also an article on the electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply sector.
Further Eurostat information
- European business - facts and figures (online publication)
- Key figures on European Business – with a special feature section on SMEs – 2011 edition
- SBS - industry and construction (sbs_ind_co)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics - industry and construction (sbs_na_ind)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics for industry (NACE Rev.2 B-E) (sbs_na_ind_r2)
- Preliminary results on industry and construction, main indicators (NACE Rev.2) (sbs_na_r2preli)
- SMEs - Annual enterprise statistics broken down by size classes - industry and construction (sbs_sc_ind)
- Industry broken down by employment size classes (NACE Rev.2 B-E) (sbs_sc_ind_r2)
- Annual detailed enterprise statistics - industry and construction (sbs_na_ind)
- SBS - regional data - all activities (sbs_r)
- SBS data by NUTS 2 regions and NACE Rev.2, from 2008 onwards (sbs_r_nuts06_r2)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Decision 1578/2007/EC of 11 December 2007 on the Community Statistical Programme 2008 to 2012
- Regulation 295/2008 of 11 March 2008 concerning structural business statistics
More detailed analysis of mining and quarrying activities: