Municipal waste statistics
From Statistics Explained
- Data from March 2011. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.
This statistical article shows the development of municipal waste generation and treatment in the European Union (EU) from 1995 to 2009. It includes an analysis of the evidence on decoupling, i.e. on breaking the link between the production of material wealth and the production of waste. Furthermore, different strategies used by countries to treat municipal waste are presented.
Municipal waste constitutes only around 10 % of total waste generated. However, the political emphasis on municipal waste is very high because of its complex character due to its composition, its distribution among many waste generators and its link to consumption patterns.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 Further Eurostat information
- 5 External links
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
Main statistical findings
Municipal waste generated by country
Eurostat has been collecting and publishing data on municipal waste since 1995. These data are widely used for comparing municipal waste generation and treatment in different countries, and indicators on municipal waste are used to monitor European waste policies. The data on municipal waste expressed in kilogram per capita are part of a set of indicators which are compiled annually to monitor the EU’s sustainable development strategy.
The data presented cover the period from 1995 to 2009 for the 27 EU Member States; for the candidate countries Croatia (only 2006 and 2008), the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (only 2008) and Turkey, for the EFTA countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, and the potential candidate country Bosnia and Herzegovina (only 2008 and 2009) data are presented as far as possible.
Figure 1 shows municipal waste generation by country expressed in kilogram per capita. To illustrate the developments, the graph contains the waste amounts generated in 1995, 2002 and 2009. The figure includes the EU-27 aggregates for comparison and the countries are sorted in decreasing order by municipal waste generation in 2009.
The totals of municipal waste generation in 2009 vary considerably, ranging from 831 kg per capita in Denmark to 316 kg per capita in the Czech Republic. The variation reflects differences in consumption patterns and economic wealth of the countries, but also depends greatly on the organisation of municipal waste collection and management. Differences between individual countries exist in particular with regard to the degree to which waste from commerce, trade and administration is collected and managed together with waste from households. In most countries, households generate between 60 % and 90 % of the municipal waste while the remainder can be attributed to commercial sources and administration.
In 23 of the 31 countries, the amount of municipal waste generated per capita increased between 1995 and 2009, rising steadily in 14 of these countries, with the highest annual growth rates recorded for Malta (3.9 %), Greece (3.3 %) and Denmark (3.0 %). In the remaining nine countries the overall increasing trend was interrupted in the period around 2002. Of these, six countries showed an increase from 1995 to 2002, with the largest annual growth rates being in Austria, Ireland and Latvia, before the amounts stabilised or declined slightly between 2002 and 2009.
Conversely, three countries (Slovakia, Czech Republic and Poland) report decreasing waste generation for the period from 1995 to 2002 followed by an increase between 2002 and 2008.
Of the eight countries with an overall decrease from 1995 to 2009, only three (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania) showed a decline in both periods before and after 2002. Bulgaria showed the largest reduction with a steady annual decline by 3.0 % while in Hungary waste generation did not change significantly throughout the whole period (-0.5 % per annum).
In the five other cases the decline was not steady. The figures for Turkey and Germany show a small increase until 2002 by less than 0.5 % per annum, followed by annual decreases of 2.0 % and 1.2 %, respectively. Slovenia and Norway reported larger overall reductions; however, these developments are mainly due to a retrospective reassessment and methodological changes. Thus, the overall trend of these two countries is not assessable.
From 2002 on, the evolution of the methodologies was finalised in most of the countries, so that the waste generation time series of 2002 and later is more accurate and stable than that between 1995 and 2001.
Municipal waste treated in Europe
In the following section, differences in the management of municipal waste are shown and the various countries’ treatment strategies are identified on the basis of the reported amounts of municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted. For incineration, the countries are asked for a distinction between incineration with and without energy recovery. However, as no clear classification criteria have been applied so far, the comparability of results among countries and over time remains fairly limited. Therefore, the current data allow only analysis of the total amount incinerated.
Table 1 shows the amounts of municipal waste treated in the European Union (EU-27) for the period 1995 to 2009 by treatment method in million tonnes and kg per capita. Figure 2 shows the amounts of waste generated at EU-27 level and the amounts of waste subject to the four treatment categories (landfill, incineration, recycling, composting).
The ‘other treatment’ category was calculated as the difference between the sum of the amounts treated and the amounts of waste generated. This difference is caused mainly by those countries that have to estimate the waste generation in areas not covered by the municipal waste collection scheme and thus report more waste generated than treated. Consequently, increased coverage of the population at EU-27 level (89 % in 1995, 97 % in 2009) has led to decreasing ‘other treatment’.
In addition, the ‘other treatment’ category reflects the effects of import and export, weight losses, double-counting of secondary wastes (e.g. landfilling and recycling of residues from incineration), differences due to time lags, temporary storage and increasingly the allocation of pre-treatment such as mechanical biological treatment. This may even lead to a higher amount treated for a certain year. At EU-27 level, all of these effects contribute only marginally and tend to cancel each other out. However, at country level, the effects are considerable, and the treatment shares presented below are therefore always related to the total amounts treated and not to the amounts generated.
In spite of the increase in waste generation in the EU-27, the amounts of municipal waste landfilled have been reduced. In the reference period, the landfilled total in the EU-27 declined by 45.6 million tonnes, or 32 %, from 141.3 million tonnes (296 kg per capita) in 1995 to 95.7 million tonnes (191 kg per capita) in 2009, corresponding to an annual decline of 2.7 %. Since 2002, the landfilled amounts have fallen by as much as 4.4 % per year.
As a result, the share of landfilling in the EU-27 dropped from 68 % in 1995 to 38 % in 2008.
This reduction can partly be attributed to the implementation of European legislation, for instance Directive 62/1994 on packaging and packaging waste. By the year 2001, the Member States had to recover a minimum of 50 % of all packaging put on the market. With the revised recovery target of 60 % to be achieved by 31 December 2008, a further increase of separately collected packaging waste could be observed.
Furthermore, the implementation of Directive 31/1999 on the landfill of waste, which requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills to 75 % by 16 July 2006, to 50 % by 16 July 2009 and to 35 % by 16 July 2016, has contributed to this development. This Directive has led to different strategies preventing the organic fraction of municipal waste from being landfilled, namely composting (including fermentation), incineration and pre-treatment such as mechanical-biological treatment (including physical stabilisation).
As a result, the amounts of waste recycled increased from 21.8 million tonnes (46 kg per capita) in 1995 to 59.2 million tonnes (118 kg per capita) in 2009, which corresponds to overall growth by a factor of 2.7 at an annual rate of 7.4 %. The share of municipal waste recycled overall increased from 11 % to 24 %.
The recovery of organic material by composting is the treatment method that has increased the most.
This increase corresponds to an annual growth rate of 9.1 %. Recycling and composting together accounted for a share of 42 % in 2009 and have exceeded the landfill share since 2008.
Waste incineration has also grown steadily in the reference period, although not to the extent of recycling and composting. Since 1995, the amounts of municipal waste incinerated in the EU-27 have increased by 19.6 million tonnes or 63.1 %, and accounted for 50.7 million tonnes or 20 % of the total amount treated in 2009. This corresponds to an increase of municipal waste incinerated from 65 kg per capita to 101 kg per capita.
Mechanical-biological treatment as well as sorting of waste are not covered directly as a category in the reporting of municipal waste treatment. These types of pre-treatment require an additional final treatment of the waste. In practice, the amounts delivered to mechanical-biological treatment or sorting should be reported on the basis of the subsequent final treatment steps. However, the way these amounts are allocated to the four treatment categories (incineration, landfilling, recycling and composting) is, on a country scale, considerably different and some countries report only on the first (pre-) treatment step.
As a consequence, the reporting on the current set of variables often requires additional information in order to relate the amounts of municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted to the amounts generated at country level. Therefore, all percentages presented in the following are related to the total municipal waste treated.
Municipal waste treated by country
Figure 3 and Figure 4 illustrate the huge differences between countries with regard to the state of their waste management systems.
Figure 3 presents the amounts of municipal waste landfilled, incinerated, recycled and composted in 2008 as a percentage of the total amounts treated.
Figure 4 shows the corresponding figures in kilogram per capita. Both are sorted by the percentage of waste amounts landfilled relative to the total amounts treated.
Several countries are very advanced in diverting municipal waste from landfills, often due to the implementation of national measures to reduce landfilling of municipal waste. Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Denmark and Belgium have reported landfill rates below 5 %.
In Sweden and Denmark, there has been a ban on landfilling combustible waste since 2002 and 1997 respectively. The waste has to be recycled, treated by anaerobic digestion or incinerated. This strategy gives these two countries the highest incineration rates for municipal waste in the EU-27, with 49 % and 48 % respectively, matched only by the incineration rate of Switzerland (49 %). These three countries, together with France, were the only ones with landfill rates below 80 %, where the amounts incinerated equalled or exceeded the amounts recycled or composted. Mostly, the countries with low landfill rates had a larger combined share of recycling and composting than incineration.
Landfilling rates in the Netherlands fell in the 1990s as a result of recycling, composting and incineration of municipal waste. A further reduction occurred when the direct disposal of mixed municipal waste was banned as of 2003, resulting in only 4 kg per capita municipal waste directly landfilled in 2009.
In Sweden, the landfilled amounts dropped from 64 kg per capita in 2003 to 7 kg per capita in 2009 after the introduction of a landfill ban on organic material in 2005.
In Germany, landfilling was reduced steadily over the last decade mainly by recycling, mechanicalbiological treatment and incineration. A considerable drop in landfilled amounts was due to the landfill ban for untreated municipal waste that entered into force on 30 June 2005.
Similarly, Austria has allowed landfilling only for pre-treated waste since 2004. As a result, the landfill share decreased from 28 % in 2003 to 1 % in 2009. The incineration rate increased accordingly from 11 % to 29 % in the same period. It should be noted, however, that some of the low landfill shares are also due to the exclusion of residues of other operations from reporting.
Landfill shares of between 14 % and 17 % were reported by Norway and Luxembourg. France, Italy, Finland and the United Kingdom reported amounts being landfilled in the range of 32 % to 50 %. If categorised by landfill rates, the fourteen countries with the lowest landfill rates belong to the former EU-15.
Among the so-called old Member States, landfill rates in 2008 were highest in Greece (81 %), Portugal (62 %), Ireland (62 %) and Spain (52 %).
The highest rates for recycling were reported by Germany (48 %, 274 kg per capita), Sweden (36 %, 171 kg per capita) and Belgium (36 %, 175 kg per capita), whereas Austria (40 %, 235 kg per capita) and the Netherlands (28 %, 144 kg per capita) reported the largest shares of composting.
Italy’s reported share of composting is the second highest (32 %), but national data for 2007 suggest that the Italian figure for composting contains more than 70 % amounts treated by mechanical-biological operations. Belgium was among the countries with the largest shares for both recycling (36 %) and composting (24 %).
Ireland and Greece are the only ‘old’ Member States without incineration facilities for municipal waste, although Ireland reported 4 % of incineration in 2009 which was almost exclusively attributed to coincineration of refused derived fuel, but also use of wood as a fuel and use of edible oils and fats in biodiesel processing. Ireland has succeeded in reducing the amount of municipal waste going to landfills since 2001 considerably by about 25 % thanks to strong progress in recycling.
In the new Member States and the candidate countries as well as in Iceland, landfilling is still the predominant waste management option. Landfill rates in these countries range between 62 % in Slovenia and 100 % in Bulgaria. The situation is further characterised by a low number of waste incineration facilities on the one hand, and collection and recycling schemes that are partly still in their infancy on the other hand.
Incineration of municipal waste is reported by nine of these countries. The contribution of waste incineration to municipal waste management is highest in the Czech Republic (12 %, 33 kg per capita), Iceland (11 %, 57 kg per capita), Hungary (9 %, 41 kg per capita) and Slovakia (7 %, 22 kg per capita). In the other Member States the incineration rate is less than 2 %.
As could be expected from the figures on waste generation, Figure 4 shows that the amounts treated per capita vary to a large extent. The sorting by percentage of landfilling illustrates the trend that the countries with high landfill rates have generally lower total amounts treated than those with lower landfill rates.
Except for Cyprus (775 kg per capita) and Malta (622 kg per capita), all countries displayed on the right side of Figure 4 show total amounts treated of far less than 500 kg per capita.
These countries report landfill rates of 75 % and more, as shown in Figure 3, whereas of the remaining 18 countries listed on the left side of Figure 4, only a few reported total amounts treated much lower than 500 kg per capita (e.g. Norway and Finland). The high figures for Cyprus and Malta can be attributed to a large share of commercial waste as well as to the impact of tourism, as these countries had by far the highest tourism intensity indicators in Europe in 2006.
Municipal waste treatment strategies
As regards strategies for waste treatment, the European Environment Agency (EEA) offered a reasonable approach for a grouping that takes into account the combined rates of incineration and material recovery (represented as the sum of recycling and composting). The results of this approach were published in 2007, based on data up to reference year 2005.
The rationale of the EEA approach is that countries may follow different strategies to divert waste away from landfills. These strategies are characterised either by a combination of material recovery and incineration or by focusing mainly on material recovery and less on incineration. Either of these two strategies may be seen as quite effective in diverting waste from being landfilled.
However, if material recovery is supplemented by incineration, a lower level of landfilling may be achieved, because incineration facilities have the advantage of being able to divert streams from being landfilled that may not be used for material recovery but contain a reasonable heat value. In addition, incineration may divert biodegradable material of lower heat value away from landfill after pretreatment such as stabilisation and/or drying by mechanical-biological or mechanical-physical processes.
Figure 5 shows the results of this approach for the latest data of reference year 2009. The first group contains countries that apply a combined strategy with high rates of more than 25 % for material recovery (composting and recycling) as well as incineration.
The second group consists of countries where systems for recycling and composting are established to an extent that a high rate of material recovery of more than 25 % is achieved, but incineration rates fall short of 25 %. The third group relies mostly on landfilling as a treatment option with equally low rates of less than 25 % for incineration and material recovery.
Note that the percentages in Figure 5 were, in contrast to the EEA publication, calculated in relation to the total amounts treated.
It can be seen that group 1 covers the 10 countries with the lowest landfill rates (Figures 3 and 4). Groups 2 and 3 deviate from the strict order by landfill rate for the reason that Portugal and Iceland, despite landfill rates lower than 75 %, belong to group 3 on account of their low shares for material recovery (both below 20 %), while Estonia reported material recovery of just over 25 % with a higher landfill rate of 75 %. The high landfill rate in Estonia compared to the other two countries is due to the fact that Estonia reported almost no incineration, whereas the remaining two countries diverted shares of between 11 % (Iceland) and 18 % (Portugal) away from landfilling to incineration.
The population is fairly evenly distributed within the three groups, with each group representing roughly 200 million inhabitants, ranging from 181 million (group 2) to 210 million (group 1).
When considering the geographical distribution, group 1 with the ‘most advanced’ treatment strategy is concentrated in North-Western Europe. The other two groups are located stepwise around group 1 in all directions, except for the eastern direction, where countries belonging to group 3 share direct borders with countries belonging to group 1.
Development of municipal waste treatment strategies since 1995
The developments in respect of waste treatment in the three identified groups of countries are presented in Figure 6. Note that for the evaluation of municipal waste treatment over time group 3 was calculated without the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina on account of the limited data available (only one or two reference years).
The type of treatment is shown as a percentage of total treatment and the treated amounts in kg per capita. The per capita values were calculated as a weighted average over all countries within each group, i.e. the total amounts treated per category were added for all countries per group in million tonnes and divided by the sum of the overall inhabitants per group and year. For better comparison, the graphs were scaled identically.
It can be seen that the figures in kg per capita confirm the finding mentioned above, i.e. that in countries with high landfill rates the total amounts treated in kg per capita in 2009 are lower than in countries with low landfill rates. In 2009, the treated amount per capita was 341 kg in group 3 compared with 554 kg in group 1 and 550 kg in group 2. The developments over time even suggest that the overall increase from 1995 to 2009 was larger in groups 1 (10 %) and 2 (22 %) than in group 3 (8 %). Thus, group 2 shows the largest amounts in 2009 and the largest growth, while for group 3 the opposite is the case.
Groups 1 and 2 show a similar development with regard to the absolute reduction of the percentage landfilled. In group 1, the landfill rate decreased from 42 % to 11 %. In group 2, the share of waste landfilled fell from 86 % to 49 %, mainly due to the enormous increase in composting from 1 % to 23 %. However, this increase must be interpreted with caution as 51 % of the value is from composting in Italy, known to contain largely amounts that were in fact treated by mechanical-biological facilities. Group 3 achieved an absolute reduction of 8 % (from 97 % 1995 to 89 % in 2009).
Considering the much lower starting level of group 1 for waste landfilled, the relative reduction of the landfill rates was by far the highest in this group (73 %, from 215 to 59 kg per capita). In group 2, the reduction in landfilling amounted to 30 % (from 387 in 1995 to 270 kg per capita in 2009), while in group 3, the amounts landfilled in 2009 (302 kg per capita) were almost equal to those in 1995 (304 kg per capita).
Although the total amount of municipal waste treated per capita in 2009 is much higher in group 2 than in group 3, the per capita amounts of municipal waste landfilled in 2009 are not very different in both groups, with 270 kg and 302 kg per capita respectively. In contrast to this, group 1 countries managed to reduce the already low amounts landfilled in 1995 further until 2009, mainly by recycling and composting with increases overall of 116 % and 68 %. Progress with regard to material recovery and incineration was low in group 3 in absolute terms and cannot easily be identified in the graph. The largest increase from 1995 to 2009 occurred for recycling by a factor of 8 from 2.4 to 19.3 kg per capita, followed by the amounts incinerated (2.7 to 10.1 kg per capita; factor of 3.7).
The results can be summarised as follows:
- in several countries belonging to group 1 national measure were introduced to limit the landfilling of municipal waste, which has most likely contributed to the high increase in recycling, composting and incineration;
- countries belonging to group 2 have set up some measures to divert municipal waste from landfilling, and the trend is pointing into the right direction;
- except for Estonia and Slovenia, all 'new' Member States are in group 3, only limited progress in diverting municipal waste from being landfilled can be observed; however, the generated amounts of municipal waste are notable lower than in the countries of the other two groups;
- Greece and Portugal lag behind the development in other 'old' Member States.
Municipal waste generated and economic development in Europe
Table 2 shows the data aggregates for the 27 Member States of the European Union (EU-27) for municipal waste generation, population and selected economic parameters.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is used as an economic parameter and a driver of municipal waste generation. The table shows municipal waste generated in tonnes as well as per capita. The development since 1995 is illustrated in Figure 7.
Since 1995, the generation of municipal waste in the EU-27 has shown a steady increase until 2002. In this period, municipal waste generation grew by 29.1 million tonnes, or 13 %, from 226.5 million tonnes to 255.6 million tonnes. This corresponds to an average annual growth rate of 1.7 %. In 2003 and 2004, this growth trend was interrupted, which can to some extent be attributed to the changes of methodology and classifications which reportedly took place in many countries in the period around 2002.
This decrease was followed by a further rise from 2004 to 2007 by 8.1 million tonnes, to 260.0 million tonnes, followed by a decrease in 2008 (258.9 million tonnes) and another in 2009, to 256 million tonnes.
Up to 2002, the increase in waste generation exceeded the population growth. Accordingly, the population-related indicator on municipal waste generated also increased. The indicator grew at an average rate of 1.5 % per year from 474 kg per capita in 1995 to 526 kg per capita in 2002. In 2003 the indicator fell to 514 kg per capita. The subsequent increase to 523 kg per capita in 2007 did not raise the indicator above the level of 2002. Up until 2009, the indicator decreased to 512 kg per capita, i.e. approximately to the level of 2004.
The drop in 2009 after steady growth from 2003 to 2008 was also observed in many countries’ series. It was explained by the positive economic development in this period until 2008 followed by the 2009 decline.
At the EU-27 level, GDP shows an increasing trend with an annual growth rate of 2.3 % in the period from 1995 to 2008. Annual economic growth thus clearly exceeded that of municipal waste generation in the same period (1.0 %). Particularly between 2002 and 2008, economic growth was much higher than that of municipal waste generation (0.2 %). The relation between economic development and municipal waste generation is illustrated by the line 'MW generation per EUR (GDP)', i.e. a moderate decline until 2002 by 0.8 % per year and a sharp decline by 1.8 % per year between 2002 and 2008. In 2009, the economic decline was even sharper than that of waste generation, leading to an increasing value back to the level of 2006 (24.8 kg per EUR).
These figures are not yet sufficient to conclude that municipal waste generation in the European Union has reached its peak. This is particularly true because the aggregates for 2009 are to some extent based on provisional data or estimates. Nevertheless, the figures do indicate that municipal waste generation in the European Union has slowed down since 2002.
Data sources and availability
All the data presented here were collected by Eurostat. Since the beginning of the 1990s Eurostat has conducted surveys on European waste data using the OECD/Eurostat-Joint Questionnaire as the main source. Starting from 2004 as the first reference year, Regulation 2150/2002 on waste statistics replaced in principle the data collection based on the Joint Questionnaire. In order to maintain the time series and to offer consistent data in an international context outside the EU (OECD, UN), the small set of variables on municipal waste presented in this statistical article is still collected annually on the basis of a subset of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire.
The data were extracted from the Eurostat database on 12 April 2011. Average population values (extracted on 21 April 2011) were used to calculate kilogram per capita. For the GDP, again extracted on 21 April 2011, the data were used in euro as chain-linked volumes, reference year 2000 (at 2000 exchange rates).
The municipal waste classification is based on the definitions for the section on waste in the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire, briefly summarised (more extensive information is available in the ESMS metadata sheet on municipal waste).
MW generated / MW collected The data refer to the amount of municipal waste generated. In countries with complete (national) coverage of their municipal waste collection scheme the total of municipal waste generated is equal to the total of municipal waste collected. Some countries do not cover the whole territory with a collection scheme. These countries have added an estimation of the waste generated in the areas not covered. Only Lithuania was not able to offer such estimation for the latest data. The Lithuanian data only refer to municipal waste collected.
Data include the overseas departments (département d’outre-mer or DOM) Martinique, Guadeloupe, Réunion and French Guiana.
Data for Cyprus refer only to the area under effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
Data include Liechtenstein.
Municipal waste constitutes only around 10 % of total waste generated. However, the political emphasis on municipal waste is very high because of its complex character due to its composition, its distribution among many waste generators and its link to consumption patterns.
All the data presented here were collected by Eurostat. Since the beginning of the 1990s Eurostat has conducted surveys on European waste data using the OECD/Eurostat-Joint Questionnaire as the main source. Starting from 2004 as the first reference year, Regulation 2150/2002 of 25 November 2002 on waste statistics replaced in principle the data collection based on the Joint Questionnaire. In order to maintain the time series and to offer consistent data in an international context outside the EU (OECD, UN), the small set of variables on municipal waste presented in this statistical article is still collected annually on the basis of a subset of the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire.
Further Eurostat information
- Generation and treatment of municipal waste - Statistics in focus 31/2011
- Environment statistics, see:
- Waste statistics (t_env_wasr)
- Generation of waste by economic activity (ten00106)
- Generation of waste by economic activity (hazardous, non-hazardous), 2008 (ten00107)
- Generation of waste by waste category (ten00108)
- Generation of waste by waste category (hazardous, non-hazardous), 2008 (ten00109)
- Waste generated by households by year and waste category (ten00110)
- Waste generated by households and by waste category (hazardous, non-hazardous), 2008 (ten00111)
- Recovery rates for packaging waste (ten00062)
- Recycling rates for packaging waste (ten00063)
- Environment statistics, see:
- Waste statistics (env_was)
- Waste generation and treatment (env_wasgt)
Methodology / Metadata
- Municipal waste by type of treatment (ESMS metadata file - tsien130_esms)
- Municipal waste generated (ESMS metadata file - tsien120_esms)
- Waste Statistics (ESMS metadata file - env_wasr_esms)
- Directive 94/62 of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste
- Directive 1999/31 of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste
- Regulation 2002/2150 of 25 November 2002 on waste statistics
- European Commission - DG Environment - Waste in the EU
- European Environment Agency - Waste and material resources
- OECD Website
- Environment and economy
- Environment introduced
- Packaging waste statistics
- Waste shipment statistics
- Waste statistics
- The new Waste Framework Directive now offers in Annex II an energy efficiency criterion that is expected to objectify the classification of incineration facilities and to improve data comparability. The criterion came into force by 12 December 2010. During the next data collection process Eurostat intends to ask the countries to specify from which reference year the energy efficiency criterion will be applied.
- The reduction is calculated on the basis of the total amount of biodegradable municipal waste produced in 1995.
- Statistiche ambientali, Ambiente e territorio, 2009, Sistemastatistico Nazionale Istituto Nazionale Di Statistica (ISTAT), Annuario n 11, Roma 2009, see: http://www.istat.it/dati/catalogo/20091130_00/
- European Environment Agency, 2007, The road from landfilling to recycling: common destination, different routes, Copenhagen.