Printing and reproduction statistics - NACE Rev. 1.1
From Statistics Explained
- Data from January 2009, most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database
This article belongs to a set of statistical articles which analyse the structure, development and characteristics of the various economic activities in the European Union (EU). According to the statistical classification of economic activities in the EU (NACE Rev 1.1), the present article covers printing and reproduction statistics, corresponding to NACE Groups 22.2 and 22.3, which are part of the media and communications sector. The activities covered in this article are:
- printing, whether on paper or other supports, corresponding to NACE Group 22.2;
- reproduction of recorded media (NACE Group 22.3), which includes:
- reproduction services for sound and video recording (NACE Classes 22.31 and 22.32);
- reproduction services for software (NACE Class 22.33).
Main statistical findings
The 138.9 thousand enterprises that make up the EU-27’s printing and reproduction of recorded media sector (NACE Groups 22.2 and 22.3) employed 997.7 thousand persons in 2006, around one fifth (20.5 %) of the media and communications (NACE Divisions 22 and 64) workforce. These enterprises generated EUR 124.7 billion of turnover and EUR 47.3 billion of value added; in output terms the contribution of this sector to the media and communications total was considerably less than in employment terms, this sector's value added for example amounting to 13.5 % of the total.
Among the two NACE groups that make up the printing and reproduction of recorded media sector, printing and service activities related to printing (NACE Group 22.2, hereafter referred to as printing) was dominant by all measures studied, with 88.0 % of the sector's value added and 96.4 % of the workforce. The output of these two activities developed differently in recent years, with the growth in the production index being remarkably strong for the reproduction of recorded media, while that for printing was below the industrial average.
Slightly less than one fifth of the EU-27’s value added in the printing and reproduction of recorded media sector in 2006 was concentrated in each of the United Kingdom and Germany. Printing accounted for at least four fifths of value added in the printing and reproduction of recorded media sector in every Member State, except for Ireland, where the reproduction of recorded media generated 94.4 % of sectoral value added. In fact, Ireland alone generated 71.8 % of the EU-27's value added in the reproduction of recorded media subsector.
Expenditure and productivity
The EU-27's printing subsector recorded an investment rate of 15.7 %, while for the reproduction of recorded media subsector the rate was just 8.5 %. Equally, an analysis of operating expenditure shows differences between the subsectors: personnel costs accounted for 30.0 % of operating expenditure for the printing subsector, and just 8.3 % for the reproduction of recorded media subsector, the former being close to double the non-financial business economy average and the latter around half. Apparent labour productivity for the EU-27’s printing subsector was EUR 43.3 thousand per person employed while the ratio reached EUR 156.6 thousand for the reproduction of recorded media in 2006. The difference in average personnel costs was less notable, ranging from EUR 32.1 thousand per employee for printing to EUR 38.4 thousand per employee for the reproduction of recorded media. These figures led to a wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio below the non-financial business economy average for the printing subsector (135.0 %), while the reproduction of recorded media had a wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio of 408.2 %, meaning that the value added per person employed in this subsector covered average personnel costs four times over. This was the second highest wage-adjusted labour productivity ratio recorded among any of the NACE groups within the non-financial business economy (with data available in 2005 or 2006).
Data sources and availability
The main part of the analysis in this article is derived from structural business statistics (SBS), including core, business statistics which are disseminated regularly, as well as information compiled on a multi-yearly basis, and the latest results from development projects.
Other data sources include short-term statistics (STS).
This sector gathers together several activities linked to media and communication activities, however, within this group a distinction has to be made between traditional activities (for example, postal services) for which the level of activity is rather stable and other newer activities (such as mobile telephony and electronic publishing), for which growth developments are more marked.
More so than many other industrial processes, printing has been revolutionised by information technologies. Information technology has created a number of electronic alternatives to traditional printing and at the same time enabled smaller and more flexible print-runs.
Further Eurostat information
- European Business: Facts and figures - 2009 edition