The EU in the world - energy
From Statistics Explained
- Data from February 2014. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: May 2015.
The article focuses on energy statistics in the European Union (EU) and in the 15 non-EU countries from the Group of Twenty (G20). It covers key indicators on energy production and consumption and gives an insight into the EU’s energy sector in comparison with the major economies in the rest of the world, such as its counterparts in the so-called Triad — Japan and the United States — and the BRICS composed of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
The source of energy production in the EU-28 was more varied than in any of the other G20 members
Primary production of energy in the EU-28 totalled 805.0 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 2011. This represented a decrease in comparison with the level of production in 2010 (835.3 million toe) in line with the general downward trend of EU-28 production: primary production in the EU-28 fell in all but one of the last six years, the one increase coming in 2010 as output rebounded (up 2.2 %) from the strong fall (-4.3 %) recorded in 2009 during the financial and economic crisis. This long-term fall in EU output reflects supplies becoming exhausted and/or producers considering the exploitation of limited resources uneconomical.
Worldwide primary production of energy reached 13 202 million toe in 2011. The members of the G20 accounted for approximately 71 % of the world’s energy production, with Russia, the United States and China recording higher production than the EU-28.
Between 2005 and 2011, global primary production of energy increased 13.7 % — see Figure 1. China and Indonesia’s primary production increased by more than 40 % during this period, while output in India, Brazil and Turkey increased by more than 20 %. The EU-28 and Mexico both recorded lower primary production of energy in 2011 than in 2005, while production nearly halved in Japan, in large part due to a fall in output from nuclear energy following the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011.
For many of the G20 members the mix of energy sources for primary production in 2011 was dominated by just one type. In South Africa, Australia and China three quarters or more of primary production came from coal and lignite, while in Turkey and Indonesia coal and lignite’s share was just over half. In Saudi Arabia and Mexico crude oil was dominant, while in South Korea and Japan nuclear energy contributed by far the largest share. Production in Brazil, India and Turkey was a mixture from renewables and waste as well as one type of fossil fuel, crude oil for Brazil and coal and lignite for India and Turkey. By contrast Argentina, Canada, Russia and the United States had substantial shares of production spread across two or three types of fossil fuels, with none of them accounting for half or more of total production. Energy production in the EU-28 was more varied than in any of the other G20 members with all five types of energy sources shown in Table 1 attaining at least a 10 % share of total production, but none exceeding 30 %; this variety reflects the availability of different fossil fuel deposits and the potential for hydro power among EU Member States as well as differing policies towards nuclear fuels and renewables.
The importance of nuclear power as a source of primary production of energy in Japan and South Korea has already been noted and this can be clearly seen from Figure 2. The EU-28 was the only other G20 member where more than one quarter of primary energy production was from nuclear energy, while the United States recorded the fourth highest nuclear energy share. Worldwide, renewables and waste (which includes non-renewable industrial and municipal waste) contributed 13.2 % of the primary production of energy (see Figure 3), a share that was exceeded in Brazil, Japan, India and Turkey (all above 30 %), as well as in the EU-28 and Indonesia. The share of renewables and waste in primary production was particularly low in Australia, Russia and Saudi Arabia, all of which are large exporters of fossil fuels.
By 2011, China was the G20’s fourth largest net importer of energy
The main difference between levels of energy production and consumption is international trade: a shortfall of production needs to be met by positive net imports (the balance of imports minus exports) and a production surplus is generally accompanied by negative net imports. Among the G20 members, the largest net exporters of energy in 2011 were Russia and Saudi Arabia, while net exports from Indonesia, Australia and Canada also exceeded 150 million toe; Mexico and South Africa also recorded net exports. The largest net importer was the EU-28, followed by the United States, Japan and China. Between 2005 and 2011 Argentina moved from being a net exporter of energy to a net importer. During the same period, the United States’ net imports declined, as did those of the EU-28 and Japan, while the net exports of Mexico, Saudi Arabia and South Africa also fell. An analysis of the change in gross imports (see Figure 4) indicates that only the United States, Japan, the EU-28 and Canada recorded falls between 2005 and 2011, while Saudi Arabia and Argentina’s relatively high percentage increases reflect quite low levels of imports in 2005. In quantity terms, China’s imports increased by 249.0 million toe between 2005 and 2011, equivalent to half (49.6 %) of the world’s increase in energy imports and almost double the increase reported for India (131.4 million toe).
An analysis of the composition of gross energy imports — see Table 2 — shows that crude oil and oil products dominated worldwide (67.4 %) and in most G20 members. These products accounted for more than half of all energy imports in all G20 members except for Argentina, Turkey and Russia; gas formed a large part of Argentina and Turkey’s energy imports, while in Russia more than half of all energy imports were coal and lignite.
Between 2005 and 2011 global energy consumption increased by 13.7 %
Worldwide gross consumption of energy was 13 113 million toe in 2011, of which the G20 members accounted for around four fifths, significantly higher than their collective share of production. Having increased in 2010, the EU-28’s gross inland consumption fell back to 1 706 million toe in 2011, dropping 3.5 %. Between 2005 and 2011, global energy consumption increased by 13.7 % and China’s gross inland consumption increased by more than a half (53.6 %) — see Figure 5. Japan, Canada, the EU-28 and the United States were the only G20 members to record lower gross inland consumption of energy in 2011 than in 2005.
Just over one quarter of worldwide gross consumption of energy in 2011 was coal and lignite, close to one third was crude oil and oil products and just over one fifth was gas; combined these three fuels accounted for just over four fifths (81.6 %) of global energy consumption. Gross inland consumption was entirely satisfied by such fossil fuels in Saudi Arabia and these three fuels provided more than 90 % of gross inland consumption in Australia and Russia and close to this level in Turkey, Argentina, Japan and Mexico — see Figure 6.
South Korea had the highest share of nuclear energy in gross inland consumption, 15.5 %, but this share was considerably lower than for primary production, indicating South Korea’s high dependency on imported fossil fuels, notably crude oil and oil products.
Worldwide, renewables and waste accounted for 13.3 % of gross inland consumption (see Figure 7). As for primary production, Brazil and India recorded above average shares for renewables and waste in gross inland consumption, as did Indonesia and Canada, reflecting their large net exports of fossil fuels. By contrast, the EU-28, Turkey and Japan recorded below average shares of renewables and waste in gross inland consumption, despite above average primary production, reflecting their net imports of fossil fuels.
In Japan, South Korea, Turkey and the EU-28 more than half of gross inland consumption was met by imports
The energy dependency indicator shown in Figure 8 reveals the extent to which gross inland consumption was met by net imports — countries with a negative dependency were net exporters. Japan, South Korea, Turkey and the EU-28 all had energy dependency ratios in excess of 50 % in 2011, indicating that more than half of their gross inland consumption was met by imports. Smaller, positive dependency ratios were also recorded for India, the United States, China, Brazil and Argentina. Australia’s net exports exceeded its gross inland consumption resulting in an energy dependency ratio that was below -100 %, while Saudi Arabia’s net exports were more than twice as high as its gross inland consumption.
Energy intensity fell between 2005 and 2011 for almost all G20 members
Energy intensity is an indicator of an economy’s energy efficiency and relates the quantity of energy consumed to the level of economic output, the latter represented by gross domestic product (GDP). In order to facilitate a comparison over time, GDP is shown in constant prices to remove the effects of inflation; to facilitate spatial comparisons GDP is calculated in a common currency (United States dollars are used in Figure 9) using purchasing power parities rather than market exchange rates. It should be noted that the economic structure of an economy plays an important role in determining energy intensity, as post-industrial economies with large service sectors will, a priori, have considerably lower energy use than economies characterised by heavy, traditional, industrial activities.
Energy intensity fell between 2005 and 2011 (2010 for some countries) for all G20 members for whom data are available — see Figure 9 — except for Brazil, South Korea and Mexico where energy intensities remained stable and Turkey where this measure rose slightly. Between 2005 and 2011, substantial energy efficiencies were introduced in the Chinese economy as its energy intensity fell by more than one fifth. Russia maintained its position as the most energy intense economy among the G20 members in 2010. By contrast, Japan, Turkey and the EU-27 had the lowest energy intensities.
Nuclear power contributed 27.6 % of the electricity generated in the EU-28 in 2011
Total gross electricity generation worldwide was 22.2 million gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2011, of which 84.7 % was generated by G20 members. In absolute terms, China and the United States had the highest levels of electricity generation among G20 members. A total of 3.3 million GWh of electricity was generated in the EU-28 in 2011, a small decrease compared with the level recorded in 2005. Apart from Japan, all other G20 members reported increases between 2005 and 2011, notably China and India where electricity generation increased by at least 50 %.
Coal and lignite-fired power stations generated two fifths of electricity worldwide in 2011; this share was boosted by a high use of these fuels in South Africa, China, Australia and India. Gas-fired power stations generated more than one fifth of the world’s electricity with this fuel providing more than half of the electricity generated in Mexico and Argentina and more than two fifths of the total in Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. While oil-fired power stations provided just 4.8 % of the world’s electricity, this source was dominant in Saudi Arabia. Nuclear power contributed some 27.6 % of the electricity generated in the EU-28 in 2011, which was more than double the world’s average and the second highest share among G20 members behind South Korea.
Hydro-electric power, other renewables and waste supplied 20.5 % of the world’s electricity in 2011, with a slightly higher share recorded in the EU-28 (22.0 %) — see Figure 10. Brazil and Canada were the G20 members with the highest proportion of gross electricity generation from renewables and waste. Hydro-electricity dominated electricity generation from renewables and waste in all G20 members, with the EU-28 having the highest share of electricity generation from renewable and waste sources other than hydro power. A majority of G20 members recorded a higher share of electricity generation from renewables (including hydro) and waste in 2011 than they had in 2005, the exceptions being Argentina, Russia and Indonesia. In percentage point terms, the largest increases in electricity generation from renewables was recorded in the EU-28, where the share rose from 15.3 % in 2005 to 22.0 % by 2011, a rise of 6.7 percentage points. The United States recorded the second highest increase, up 3.6 percentage points from 9.4 % to 13.0 %.
Data sources and availability
The statistical data in this article were mainly extracted during February 2014. The indicators are often compiled according to international — sometimes global — standards. Although most data are based on international concepts and definitions there may be certain discrepancies in the methods used to compile the data.
Most if not all of the indicators presented for the EU have been drawn from Eurobase, Eurostat’s online database. Eurobase is updated regularly, so there may be differences between data appearing in this publication and data that is subsequently downloaded.
G20 countries from the rest of the world
For the 15 G20 countries that are not members of the EU, the data presented have generally been extracted from a range of international sources, most notably the International Energy Agency and the OECD. For some of the indicators shown a range of international statistical sources are available, each with their own policies and practices concerning data management (for example, concerning data validation, correction of errors, estimation of missing data, and frequency of updating). In general, attempts have been made to use only one source for each indicator in order to provide a comparable analysis between the countries.
A competitive, reliable and sustainable energy sector is considered essential for all advanced economies. The energy sector has been under the spotlight in recent years due to a number of issues that have pushed energy up the political agenda, including the volatility of prices, interruptions to energy supplies and increased attention to anthropogenic (human-induced) effects of energy use on climate change, in particular, increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions.
Further Eurostat information
- The EU in the world 2014
- Key figures on the enlargement countries — 2014 edition
- Energy, transport and environment indicators — 2013 edition
- Pocketbook on Euro-Mediterranean statistics — 2013 edition
- The EU in the world 2013
- The European Union and the African Union — 2013 edition
- The European Union and the BRIC countries
- The European Union and the Republic of Korea — 2012
- Energy (t_nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - quantities (t_nrg_quant)
- Total production of primary energy (ten00076)
- Primary production of coal and lignite (ten00077)
- Primary production of crude oil (ten00078)
- Primary production of natural gas (ten00079)
- Primary production of nuclear energy (ten00080)
- Primary production of renewable energy (ten00081)
- Gross inland consumption of primary energy (ten00086)
- Total gross electricity generation (ten00087)
- Energy dependence (tsdcc310)
- Energy (nrg), see:
- Energy statistics - quantities, annual data (nrg_quant)
- Energy statistics - supply, transformation, consumption (nrg_10)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - all products - annual data (nrg_100a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - solid fuels - annual data (nrg_101a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - oil - annual data (nrg_102a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - gas - annual data (nrg_103a)
- Supply, transformation - nuclear energy - annual data (nrg_104a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - electricity - annual data (nrg_105a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - heat - annual data (nrg_106a)
- Supply, transformation, consumption - renewable energies - annual data (nrg_107a)
- Energy statistics - supply, transformation, consumption (nrg_10)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- International Energy Agency (IEA)