Unemployment statistics at regional level

From Statistics Explained

Data from May 2013. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database.

This article provides an overview of regional unemployment rates across the 270 NUTS-2 regions of the European Union (EU) in 2012, compiled by Eurostat on the basis of data from the EU Labour force survey.

Regional unemployment rates varied widely across the 270 NUTS-2 regions of the EU-27 in 2012, with the lowest rates recorded in the regions of Salzburg and Tirol (both 2.5 %) in Austria and Tübingen, Oberbayern and Trier (all 2.7 %) in Germany, while the highest rates were registered in the regions of Ceuta (38.5 %), Andalucía (34.6 %), Extremadura and Canarias (both 33.0 %) in Spain and Dytiki Makedonia (29.9 %) in Greece.

Table 1: Regions with highest and lowest unemployment rates and long-term unemployment shares in 2012 (%)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)[1]
Table 2: Unemployment rates in the regions of the European Union, 2011 and 2012
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)[2][3]
Table 3: Unemployment rates in the regions of the European Union, 2011 and 2012 (continued)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)
Table 4: Unemployment rates in the regions of the European Union, 2011 and 2012 (continued)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)
Table 5: Unemployment rates in the regions of the European Union, 2011 and 2012 (continued)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)
Table 6: Unemployment rates in the regions of the European Union, 2011 and 2012 (continued)
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)
Table 7: Unemployment rates in the regions of the EFTA and candidate countries, 2011 and 2012
Source: Eurostat (lfst_r_lfu3rt) (lfst_r_lfu2ltu)

Main statistical findings

Regional unemployment rates ranged from 2.5 % in Salzburg and Tirol to 38.5 % in Ceuta and 34.6 % in Andalucía

Regional unemployment rates varied widely across the 270 NUTS-2 regions of the EU-27 in 2012, with the lowest rates recorded in the regions of Salzburg and Tirol (both 2.5 %) in Austria and Tübingen, Oberbayern and Trier (all 2.7 %) in Germany, while the highest rates were registered in the regions of Ceuta (38.5 %), Andalucía (34.6 %), Extremadura and Canarias (both 33.0 %) in Spain and Dytiki Makedonia (29.9 %) in Greece.

Among the regions, 53 had an unemployment rate of less than 5.2 % in 2012, half the average for the EU-27. They included twenty-two regions in Germany, eight out of nine regions in Austria, seven regions in the Netherlands, five in the United Kingdom, four in Belgium, three in Romania, two in the Czech Republic, one in Italy and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. At the other extreme, 25 regions had a rate higher than 20.8 %, double that of the EU-27: eleven regions in Spain, ten regions in Greece and four French Overseas Departments[4].

By sex

Female unemployment rates varied from 2.7 % in Freiburg to 49.4 % in Ceuta and 36.8 % in Dytiki Makedonia

In the EU-27 in 2012 the female unemployment rate was slightly higher than the male rate (10.5 % compared with 10.4 %).

In 2012, the female unemployment rate varied between 2.7 % in Freiburg in Germany and 49.4 % in Ceuta in Spain and 36.8 % in Dytiki Makedonia in Greece, while the male rate ranged from 2.3 % in Salzburg and Tirol in Austria to 33.6 % in Andalucía in Spain.

By age

Unemployment rates for young people varied from 4.2 % in Oberbayern to 72.5 % in Dytiki Makedonia

In 2012, the average unemployment rate for young people aged between 15 and 24 in the EU-27 was 22.9%. Regional differences in the unemployment rate for young people are however very marked.

In the EU-27 in 2012, the lowest rates for young people were recorded in the German regions of Oberbayern (4.2 %), Tübingen (4.5 %) and Freiburg (4.8 %), and the highest in Dytiki Makedonia (72.5 %) in Greece, Ceuta (70.6 %) and Canarias (62.6 %) in Spain. In almost three quarters of the EU-27 regions, the unemployment rate for young people was at least twice that for total unemployment.

By duration

In almost one fifth of the regions, more than half of the unemployed had been out of work for at least a year

The long-term unemployment share, which is defined as the percentage of unemployed persons who have been unemployed for 12 months or more, stood at 44.6 % on average in the EU-27 in 2012, and varied significantly across the regions.

In the EU-27 in 2012, the lowest shares of long-term unemployed were recorded in Mellersta Norrland (15.4 %), Stockholm (16.3 %) and Västsverige (17.5 %) in Sweden and Bucureşti-Ilfov (17.7 %) in Romania, and the highest in the French Overseas Departments of Guadeloupe (80.3 %), Guyane (74.7 %) and Martinique (72.9 %) and Východné Slovensko (71.1 %) in Slovakia. In 53 regions more than half of the unemployed had been out of work for at least 12 months.

Data sources and availability

These data on regional unemployment, compiled on the basis of the EU Labour force survey, are published by Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union.

The data are based on the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) as modified in January 2011. NUTS 2010 provides a uniform, consistent breakdown of territorial units for the production of regional statistics for the EU. Level 2 of the nomenclature has 270 regions: Belgium (11), Bulgaria (6), the Czech Republic (8), Denmark (5), Germany (38), Ireland (2), Greece (13), Spain (19), France (26), Italy (21), Hungary (7), the Netherlands (12), Austria (9), Poland (16), Portugal (7), Romania (8), Slovenia (2), Slovakia (4), Finland (5), Sweden (8) and the United Kingdom (37). Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Malta are all considered as single regions at NUTS-2 level.

The statistical regions in the candidate and EFTA countries follow the principles of the NUTS classification; however there is no legal base. There are 46 regions in these countries at level 2: Norway (7), Switzerland (7), Croatia (2) and Turkey (26). Iceland, Liechtenstein, Montenegro and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia are all considered as single regions at level 2.

Context

The unemployment rate is an important indicator with both social and economic dimensions. Rising unemployment results in a loss of income for individuals, increased pressure with respect to government spending on social benefits and a reduction in tax revenue. From an economic perspective, unemployment may be viewed as unused labour capacity.

Male, youth and long-term unemployment appear to be more susceptible to cyclical economic changes than overall unemployment. Indeed, social policymakers often face the challenge of remedying these situations by designing ways to increase employment opportunities for various groups of society, those working in particular economic activities, or those living in specific regions.

See also

Further Eurostat information

Data visualisation

Main tables

Regional labour market statistics (t_reg_lmk)
Employment rate of the age group 15-64, by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00007)
Employment rate of the group 55-64 years, by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00054)
Dispersion of regional employment rates, by sex (tsdec440)
Unemployment rate, by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00010)
Long-term unemployment (12 months and more), by NUTS 2 regions (tgs00053)
LFS main indicators (t_lfsi)
Unemployment - LFS adjusted series (t_une)
LFS series - detailed annual survey results (t_lfsa)
Unemployment rates of the population aged 25-64 by level of education (tps00066)

Database

Regional labour market statistics (reg_lmk)
Regional economically active population - LFS annual series (lfst_r_lfpop)
Regional employment - LFS annual series (lfst_r_lfemp)
Regional unemployment - LFS annual series (lfst_r_lfu)
Regional socio-demographic labour force statistics - LFS annual series (lfst_r_lfsd)
Regional labour market disparities - LFS series and LFS adjusted series (lfst_r_lmd)
LFS main indicators (lfsi)
Unemployment - LFS adjusted series (une)
LFS series - detailed quarterly survey results (from 1998)
Total unemployment - LFS series (lfsq_unemp)
LFS series - Detailed annual survey results (lfsa)
Total unemployment - LFS series (lfsa_unemp)

Dedicated section

Methodology / Metadata

Other information

External links

Notes

  1. ( ): Data with reduced reliability due to sample size.
  2. ( ): Data with reduced reliability due to sample size.
  3. u: Data not published due to small sample size.
  4. Data for French Overseas Departments (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane and Réunion) refer to the second quarter of 2012.
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