From Statistics Explained
- Data from July 2013 and July 2014. Most recent data: Further Eurostat information, Main tables and Database. Planned article update: January 2015.
This article gives an overview on the development of waste generation and treatment in the European Union (EU) and several non-member countries; it draws exclusively on data collected within the framework of Regulation 2150/2002 of the European Parliament and Council on waste statistics.
Waste, defined by Directive 2008/98/EC Article 3(1) as ‘any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard’, potentially represents an enormous loss of resources in the form of both materials and energy; in addition, the management and disposal of waste can have serious environmental impacts. Landfills, for example, take up land space and may cause air, water and soil pollution, while incineration may result in emissions of dangerous air pollutants, unless properly regulated.
EU waste management policies therefore aim to reduce the environmental and health impacts of waste and improve the EU’s resource efficiency. The long-term aim of these policies is to reduce the amount of waste generated and when waste generation is unavoidable to promote it as a resource and achieve higher levels of recycling and the safe disposal of waste.
- 1 Main statistical findings
- 2 Data sources and availability
- 3 Context
- 4 See also
- 5 Further Eurostat information
- 6 External links
Main statistical findings
Total waste generation
In 2010, the total generation of waste from economic activities and households in the EU-28 amounted to 2 506 million tonnes; this was slightly higher than in 2008 but lower than in 2004 and 2006; the relatively low figures for 2008 and 2010 may, at least in part, reflect the downturn in economic activity as a result of the financial and economic crisis. Among the waste generated in the EU-28 in 2010, some 101.4 million tonnes (4.0 % of the total) were classified as hazardous waste. This was equivalent to an average of about 5.0 tonnes of waste for each inhabitant in the EU-28, of which 201 kg were hazardous waste.
Table 1 shows an analysis of the total waste generated by various economic activities (according to NACE Rev. 2). There were considerable variations across the EU-28 Member States in 2010, both in the amount of waste generated and the activities that contributed considerably to waste generation. The total amount of waste generated ranged from 1 353 thousand tonnes in Malta to 363 545 thousand tonnes in Germany. The highest shares of the EU-28 total being accounted for by Germany (14.5 %), France (14.2 %) and the United Kingdom (10.3 %), which made up 39.0 % share of total EU-28 waste generation. Regarding waste generation by activity,construction accounted for the largest share of generated waste in eleven EU Member States, ranging from 27.6 % in Spain to 84.9 % in Luxembourg. The manufacturing industry accounted for the largest share of generated waste in Lithuania (47.5 %), Slovenia (29.4 %) and Slovakia (28.4 %). Mining and quarrying accounted for the largest share in Bulgaria (89.7 %), Romania (80.9 %), Sweden (75.7 %), Greece (63.6 %), Finland (52.6 %) and Poland (38.6 %). In Estonia, energy (electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply) made up the largest share (34.4 %), while in Latvia, it was households (46.3 %).
The total waste generated by economic activities and households in 2010, may also be expressed in relation to the population (see Figure 1). Using this measure, Latvia generated the lowest level of waste per inhabitant (669 kg) among the EU Member States, just below Croatia (715 kg). Among non-EU Member States, there was also a relatively low level of waste generated per inhabitant in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1 113 kg). For the majority of the remaining EU Member States and the other non-member countries shown in Figure 1 the amount of waste generated ranged between 1.5 and 8.7 tonnes per inhabitant, rising to 10.2 tonnes per inhabitant in Romania, 12.5 tonnes per inhabitant in Sweden, 14.2 tonnes per inhabitant in Estonia, 19.5 tonnes per inhabitant in Finland, 20.6 tonnes per inhabitant in Luxembourg and peaking at 22.2 tonnes per inhabitant in Bulgaria.
Some of the large variations between countries may be linked to the differences in economic structures. For example, the high level of waste generated in Bulgaria, Finland, Estonia, Sweden and Romania was strongly influenced by large quantities of mineral wastes from mining and quarrying activities, whereas in Luxembourg, mineral waste from construction was largely responsible for the high amount of waste generated.
Figure 2 shows the share of each economic activity in total waste generation for 2010 at EU-28 level. Two activities generated particularly high levels of waste across the EU-28 in 2010: construction (NACE Section F) accounting for 860 million tonnes (34.3 % of the total) and mining and quarrying (NACE Section B) contributing 672 million tonnes (26.8 % of the total). The vast majority of waste generated within these activities was composed of mineral waste or soils (excavated earth, road construction waste, demolition waste, dredging spoil, waste rocks, tailings, etc.). Manufacturing (NACE Section C) accounted for 276 million tonnes of waste generated in the EU-28 in 2010 (11.0 % of the total), while households contributed a further 220 million tonnes (8.8 %). The relatively low share of total waste generated from agriculture, forestry and fishing activities (NACE Section A, 1.6 %) is, at least in part, linked to manure and slurry being excluded from the data presented (as long as they are reused within agriculture as a fertiliser or soil improver).
Waste generation excluding major mineral wastes
The 927 million tonnes of waste generated excluding major mineral wastes in the EU-27 in 2010 represented 37.0 % of the total waste generated. The level of waste generated excluding major mineral wastes was 2.9 % lower in 2010 than in 2004. When expressed in relation to the population, each inhabitant in the EU-27 generated, on average, 1.8 tonnes of waste excluding major mineral wastes in 2010 (see Figure 3). Across the EU Member States, waste generation excluding major mineral wastes ranged from an average of 588 kg per inhabitant in Latvia to 8.6 tonnes per inhabitant in Estonia (composed largely of hazardous combustion waste and hazardous chemical deposits and residues from the refining and incineration of oil shale).
Figure 4 shows the origin and development of waste generation excluding major mineral waste analysed by economic activity. In 2010, manufacturing (NACE Section C) and households each contributed similar shares (216 million tonnes and 212 million tonnes respectively) to the generation of waste excluding major mineral wastes. Excluding major mineral waste, waste generation from manufacturing decreased steadily from 2004 onwards, down 19.8 % overall by 2010. By contrast, waste generation from the waste and water management sector (NACE Section E and Class 46.77) saw rapid growth, rising by 44.5 % over the same period. The quantity of waste generated by households increased slightly between 2004 and 2010.
Hazardous waste generation
Hazardous waste may pose a risk to human health and the environment if not managed and disposed of safely. In 2010, the EU-28 generated 2 404.3 million tonnes of non-hazardous waste and some 101.4 million tonnes of hazardous waste (Table 2). Compared to 2008, non-hazardous waste generation remained stable, while hazardous waste generation presented a 3.8 % increase (97.6 million tonnes of hazardous waste in 2008). In 2010, the share of hazardous waste in total waste generation was below 10.0 % in all EU Member States but Estonia, where hazardous waste made up a 47.2 % share of the total. This very high share was due to energy production from oil shale. Among non-EU Member States, Serbia presented the highest share of hazardous waste in total waste generation (33.1 %), due to intensive activity in the mining and quarrying industrial sectors.
Figure 4 shows the amount of hazardous waste that was generated per inhabitant in 2004 and 2010; note that the figures include all hazardous waste categories, including minerals. The high figures for Estonia (6.7 tonnes per inhabitant), as noted above, may be largely attributed to oil shale, and those for Bulgaria (1.8 tonnes per inhabitant) to the mining of copper ores; the high figures for Serbia (1.6 tonnes per inhabitant) are also related to mining and quarrying. Aside from these specific cases, the generation of hazardous waste across the EU Member States and non-member countries shown in Figure 4 ranged in 2010 from as low as 16 kg per inhabitant in Croatia and 26 kg per inhabitant in Greece to as high as 477 kg per inhabitant in Finland and 747 kg per inhabitant in Luxembourg.
Figure 5 shows the amount of hazardous waste that was generated per inhabitant in 2004 and 2010 (note that the figures include all hazardous waste categories, including minerals). The high figures for Estonia (6.7 tonnes per inhabitant), as noted above, may be largely attributed to oil shale. Bulgaria's figures (1.8 tonnes per inhabitant) are related to the mining of copper ores while Serbia's (1.5 tonnes per inhabitant) are also related to mining and quarrying.
Aside from these specific cases, the generation of hazardous waste in 2010 across EU Member States and non-EU Member States ranged from as low as 17 kg per inhabitant in Croatia and 26 kg per inhabitant in Greece to as high as 477 kg per inhabitant in Finland and 750 kg per inhabitant in Luxembourg (see Figure 5).
Compared to 2004, the EU-28 presented an 11.7 % increase in hazardous waste generation. Among EU Member States, Denmark (445.8 %), Latvia (357.1 %) Luxembourg (177.8 %), Ireland (142.7 %) and the Netherlands (103.1 %) presented the highest increases. Turkey (214.3 %) and Norway (147.3 %) were the non-EU Member States with the largest increase of hazardous waste generation in 2010 compared to 2004. In the EU-28, the large increases between 2004 and 2010 in some countries were almost compensated by the reductions in 12 EU Member States. The largest decreases were registered in Cyprus (-70.6 %), Romania (-69.2 %) and Hungary (-60.0 %).
In 2010, some 2 339 million tonnes of waste were treated in the EU-28; this includes the treatment of waste that was imported into the EU. Table 3 presents more information in relation to the types of waste treatment operation that were employed. Almost half (45.4 %) of the waste treated in the EU-28 in 2010 was subject to disposal operations other than waste incineration; this was predominantly landfills, but also included mining waste disposed in and around mining sites and waste discharges into water bodies. A further 49.0 % of the waste treated in the EU-28 in 2010 was sent to recovery operations (other than energy recovery). The remaining 5.6 % of the treated waste was sent for incineration (with and without energy recovery — 3.8 % and 1.8 % respectively).
Important differences could be observed among EU Member States in 2010. Bulgaria, Romania and Malta deposited 98.7 %, 91.5 % and 85.8 % of their waste. By contrast, Poland, Italy and the Czech Republic recovered 75.8 %, 73.2 % and 72.5 % respectively. In comparison to the EU average, energy recovery was considerably higher in Denmark (24.2 %), Belgium (15.8 %) and Portugal (11.6 %). Regarding incineration, the highest shares were recorded in Belgium (6.5 %) and Austria (5.5 %).
Figure 6 shows the development of waste treatment in the EU-27 for each main treatment category in the 2004–10 period. Waste disposal saw a steady decrease in the volume of waste treated from 2004 to 2008. However, in 2010 this situation was reversed, largely as a result of higher levels of waste treatment for mining and quarrying activities and for the disposal of the respective material in a few countries (Romania, Sweden and Finland). In spite of this rebound the share of disposal in total waste treatment fell from 54.0 % in 2004 to 45.4 % in 2010. The quantity of waste recovered (excluding energy recovery) steadily grew from 889.4 million tonnes in 2004 to 1 144.7 million tonnes in 2010. As a result, the share of recovery in total waste treatment rose from 41.0 % in 2004 to 49.0 % in 2010. An analysis of the latest data for 2010 shows that 243.7 million tonnes of waste recovery was used for backfilling, in other words, used in excavated areas for the purpose of slope reclamation or safety or for engineering purposes in landscaping. Waste incineration and energy recovery increased from 108.0 million tonnes in 2004 to 129.6 million tonnes in 2008 and 131.8 million tonnes in 2010, an overall increase of 22.1 %.
For the treatment of hazardous waste, the share of waste disposal amounted in 2010 to 42.8 % of the EU-27 total, and therefore accounted for a share of total hazardous waste treatment that was slightly lower than the share for all waste. Table 4 shows that some 9.8 million tonnes (or 11.7 % of all hazardous waste) was incinerated or used for energy recovery, and 38.2 million tonnes (or 45.5 %) was recovered.
Data sources and availability
In order to monitor the implementation of waste policy, in particular compliance with the principles of recovery and safe disposal, reliable statistics on the production and management of waste from businesses and private households are required. In 2002, Regulation 2150/2002 on waste statistics was adopted, creating a framework for harmonised Community statistics on waste.
Starting with reference year 2004, the Regulation requires EU Member States to provide data on the generation, recovery and disposal of waste every two years. Data on waste generation and treatment are available for four reference years, namely, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010.
Croatian data for the years 2004 to 2010 were provided to Eurostat on a voluntary basis. At the time of writing the Croatian data were not complete as data on waste generated by households have not yet been released. Hence, the focus of the analysis presented in this article is on data for the EU-27 rather than the EU-28.
The EU’s approach to waste management is based on three principles: waste prevention, recycling and reuse, and improving final disposal and monitoring. Waste prevention can be achieved through cleaner technologies, eco-design, or more eco-efficient production and consumption patterns. Waste prevention and recycling, focused on materials technology, can also reduce the environmental impact of resources that are used through limiting raw materials extraction and transformation during production processes. Where possible, waste that cannot be recycled or reused should be safely incinerated with landfills only used as a last resort. Both these methods need close monitoring because of their potential for causing severe environmental damage.
The EU’s sustainable development strategy and its sixth environment action programme, which identifies waste prevention and management as one of seven thematic strategies – titled, ‘Taking sustainable use of resources forward – A thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste’ (COM(2005) 666 final), underline the relationship between the efficient use of resources and waste generation and management. The intention of Community policy in this area is to decouple the use of resources and the generation of waste from economic growth, while ensuring that sustainable consumption does not exceed environmental capacity. In order to review the progress being made with respect to the EU’s waste policy, an evaluation of the thematic strategy was carried out in 2010 (COM(2011) 13 final). This report stated that progress had been achieved on a number of fronts, including legislative changes, higher recycling rates, lower amounts of waste going to landfill, and a reduction in hazardous substances for some waste streams. Nevertheless, the conclusions also highlighted a range of issues where improvements could be made, including: the negative environmental impact caused by an expected increase in waste generation, a failure to grasp various opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and a lack of progress in creating jobs within environmental services. There were also calls in the report to define new and more ambitious prevention and recycling targets, and to move towards material-specific targets in order to help achieve the Europe 2020 objective of promoting a resource-efficient economy.
- Environment and economy
- Greenhouse gas emissions from waste disposal
- Municipal waste statistics
- Packaging waste statistics
- Recycling – secondary material price indicator
- Remediation and other waste management services statistics - NACE Rev. 2
- Waste shipment statistics
Further Eurostat information
- Environmental statistics and accounts in Europe, Chapter 3 Waste (2010)
- Energy, transport and environment indicators pocketbook (2012 edition)
- Generation and treatment of waste in Europe 2008 (SiF 44/2011)
- Generation and treatment of municipal waste (SiF 31/2011)
- Waste statistics
- Environment, see:
- Waste statistics
- Waste generation and treatment (env_wasgt)
Methodology / Metadata
- ESMS metadata file (env_wasgt_esms)
Source data for tables and figures (MS Excel)
- Environmental Data Centre on Waste
- Regulation 2150/2002 of 25 November 2002 on waste statistics
- Thematic strategy on the prevention and recycling of waste
- Being wise with waste: the EU’s approach to waste management
- European Commission - DG Environment - Waste in the EU
- European Environment Agency - Waste and material resources