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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


Updated: Acquisition of citizenship statistics

Total number of acquisitions of citizenship in the EU-28, 2009-2012.png
This article presents recent statistics on the acquisition of citizenship in the European Union (EU). In 2012, 818 100 people obtained citizenship of an EU-28 Member State, an increase of 4.0 % compared with 2011; More people had acquired the citizenship of an EU Member State than in any other year during the period from 2002 to 2011. The main contribution to the increase at EU level came from United Kingdom (+16 300), followed by Ireland (+14 300) and Sweden (+13 500). The increase in Ireland, however, is a consequence of the efforts in the past two years to reduce the backlog of citizenship applications. More ...

Updated: Chemicals management statistics

Production of chemicals, EU-28, 2004–13 (¹) (2004 = 100) YB15.png
Work on European Union (EU) statistics concerning hazardous substances started in the mid-1990s when a set of environmental pressure indicators (EPIs) related to chemicals were developed. More recently, a set of indicators to monitor the effectiveness of the Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) have been developed. This article presents an analysis of indicators that have been developed and compiled by Eurostat, covering the production of industrial chemicals. More ...

Updated: Inflation in the euro area

Euro area annual inflation and its main components, 2002-2014-10-p.png
The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are actual HICP figures. More ...

Updated: Railway safety statistics

No of persons killed in railway accidents, 2012-2013.png
This article takes a look at recent annual statistics on rail transport accidents in the European Union (EU). Safety in rail transport has steadily enhanced over the years: in 2013, the decline in number of accidents compared with 2012 could be established at 1.9 %, and the number of victims (killed or injured persons) has also decreased over the same period (-1.9 %). More ...

Updated: Road freight transport by type of goods

Share by group of goods (NST 2007) in EU-28 total transport, 2013 (% in tonnes and in tonne-kilometres).png
This article presents road freight transport in the European Union (EU) regarding the commodities carried. It presents total, national and international transport performed according to the type of goods carried. It also gives complete information for the transport of dangerous goods. Finally, road freight transport by type of cargo is presented. More ...

Updated: Unemployment statistics

Unemployment rates, seasonally adjusted, September 2014.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000. Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. More ...

Updated: Railway freight transport statistics

Rail transport of goods by country in 2012 - in billion tkm.png
This article focuses on recent rail freight transport statistics in the European Union (EU). The total performance in the EU-28 can be estimated at around 404 billion tonne-kilometres in 2013, showing a decrease of about 1.0 % compared with 2012. This shows how difficult it is for the rail freight transport to recover following the economic crisis (which ended a sustained period of growth over recent years). More ...

New: Migrant integration statistics - social inclusion

Evolution of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion by broad group of country of citizenship, 2005–12.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the social inclusion of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. More ...

Today's article

Education statistics at regional level

Participation rates of four year-olds in pre-primary and primary education (ISCED levels 0 and 1), by NUTS 2 regions, 2012 (1) (% of four year-olds) RYB14.png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat Regional Yearbook publication. It presents a selection of the regional education and training statistics that are available within Eurostat. Education, vocational training and more generally lifelong learning play a vital role in the economic and social strategies of the European Union (EU).

Main statistical findings

Figures for the EU-28 for 2011 indicate that there were 93.7 million students enrolled in regular education systems covering all levels of education from primary to postgraduate studies; there were an additional 15.4 million children enrolled in pre-primary education.

Eurostat compiles and publishes education and training statistics for EU regions, the individual EU Member States, as well as the EU-28 aggregate; in addition, a subset of information is available for EFTA and candidate countries. These statistics are generally available for NUTS 2 regions and this article presents data relating to educational participation and early leavers from education and training, enrolments and attainment, and adult lifelong learning. Statistics for the participation rates of four year-olds and the number of students in tertiary education are only available at the national level for Croatia, while these indicators are presented for NUTS 1 regions across Germany and the United Kingdom.

Participation of four year-olds in education

Map 1: Participation rates of four year-olds in pre-primary and primary education
(ISCED levels 0 and 1), by NUTS 2 regions, 2012 (1)
(% of four year-olds) - Source: Eurostat (educ_regind)

The legal age to start education varies across the EU Member States: in Luxembourg and Northern Ireland (in the United Kingdom) compulsory education starts at age four, while in other EU regions it starts between five and seven years of age; enrolment in pre-primary education is generally voluntary across most EU Member States. The Europe 2020 strategy emphasises raising participation rates of young children in preparation for the start of compulsory education. One of its headline targets is to raise the share of children participating in pre-primary education to at least 95 % by the year 2020. More ...