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Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


New: Microdata linking - international sourcing

Percentage of international sourcing for domestically and foreign-controlled enterprises.png
This article describes the microdata linking project launched in 2012, linking the results of the international sourcing survey to structural business statistics (SBS), international trade in goods statistics (ITGS) and foreign affiliates statistics (FATS) on enterprise level, using unique enterprise identification numbers. We start by presenting some of the main findings of this exercise, before outlining the organisation of the project and explaining some methodological issues of the microdata linking approach. We conclude by briefly addressing some other European microdata projects and the way forward for microdata linking. More ...

New: Migrant integration statistics - social inclusion

Evolution of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion by broad group of country of citizenship, 2005–12.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the social inclusion of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. More ...

Updated: Industry and construction statistics - short-term indicators

Production and domestic output price indices for industry (excluding construction), EU-28, 2004–14 (2010 = 100) YB15.png
This article examines recent statistics in relation to developments for both industry and construction in the European Union (EU). Short-term business statistics (STS) are provided in the form of indices that allow the most rapid assessment of the economic climate within industry and construction, providing a first evaluation of recent developments for a range of activities. STS show developments over time, and so may be used to calculate rates of change, typically showing comparisons with the month or quarter before, or the same period of the previous year. As such, STS do not provide information on the level of activity, such as the monetary value of output (value added or turnover), or actual prices. More ...

Updated: Railway safety statistics

No of persons killed in railway accidents, 2012-2013.png
This article takes a look at recent annual statistics on rail transport accidents in the European Union (EU). Safety in rail transport has steadily enhanced over the years: in 2013, the decline in number of accidents compared with 2012 could be established at 1.9 %, and the number of victims (killed or injured persons) has also decreased over the same period (-1.9 %). More ...

Updated: Carbon dioxide emissions from final use of products

Domestic and global CO2 emissions — consumption and production perspective, EU-27, 2011 (¹) (tonnes CO2 per inhabitant) YB15.png
This article provides an estimate of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions induced by the final use of products, based on various European Union (EU) data sets. Eurostat estimates the EU-27’s CO2 emissions from final use averaged 7.8 tonnes per inhabitant in 2011. More ...

Updated: Services statistics - short-term indicators

Index of turnover, selected service activities, EU-28, 2004–14 (¹) (2010 = 100) YB15.png
This article examines recent statistics in relation to developments for service activities in the European Union (EU). Short-term business statistics (STS) are provided in the form of indices that allow the rapid assessment of the economic climate within services, providing a first assessment of recent developments for a range of activities. More ...

Updated: Tourism statistics

Country of origin for outbound tourism trips, 2013 (¹) (average nights spent abroad per inhabitant aged 15 years or more) YB15.png
This article provides information on recent statistics in relation to tourism in the European Union (EU). Tourism plays an important role in the EU because of its economic and employment potential, as well as its social and environmental implications. Tourism statistics are not only used to monitor the EU’s tourism policies but also its regional and sustainable development policies. More ...

Updated: Chemicals management statistics

Production of chemicals, EU-28, 2004–13 (¹) (2004 = 100) YB15.png
Work on European Union (EU) statistics concerning hazardous substances started in the mid-1990s when a set of environmental pressure indicators (EPIs) related to chemicals were developed. More recently, a set of indicators to monitor the effectiveness of the Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) have been developed. This article presents an analysis of indicators that have been developed and compiled by Eurostat, covering the production of industrial chemicals. More ...

Today's article

Income distribution statistics

At-risk-of-poverty rate before and after social transfers, 2012 (1) (%) YB14 II.png
This article analyses recent statistics on monetary poverty and income inequalities in the European Union (EU). Comparisons of standards of living between countries are frequently based on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, which presents in monetary terms how rich one country is compared with another. However, this headline indicator says very little about the distribution of income within a country and also fails to provide information in relation to non-monetary factors that may play a significant role in determining the quality of life of a particular population. On the one hand, inequalities in income distribution may create incentives for people to improve their situation through work, innovation or acquiring new skills. On the other hand, such income inequalities are often viewed as being linked to crime, poverty and social exclusion.

Main statistical findings

At-risk-of-poverty rate and threshold

In 2012, 17.0 % of the EU-28 population was assessed to be at-risk-of-poverty after social transfers (see Figure 1). This share, calculated as a weighted average of national results, conceals considerable variations across the EU Member States. In five Member States, namely Greece (23.1 %), Romania (22.6 %), Spain (22.2 %), Bulgaria (21.2 %) and Croatia (20.5 %), one fifth or more of the population was viewed as being at-risk-of-poverty. The lowest proportions of persons at-risk-of-poverty were observed in the Netherlands (10.1 %) and the Czech Republic (9.6 %). Norway (10.1 %) and Iceland (7.9 %) also reported relatively low shares of their respective populations as being at-risk-of-poverty. More ...