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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


New: Foreign direct investment between the European Union and BRIC

FDI flows between the EU and BRIC countries, 2009-2013p, EUR billion.png
This article presents foreign direct investment (FDI) between the European Union (EU) and the BRIC countries – Brazil, Russia, India and China (including Hong Kong). More ...

Updated: Government finance statistics - quarterly data

6 EU-28 B9f 2014Q1.png
In recent years Eurostat has significantly expanded the range of integrated quarterly data on government finances available, providing a timely and increasingly high quality picture of the evolution of government finances in the European Union (EU). The data presented in this article reflect both non-financial and financial (quarterly non-financial and financial accounts for general government) transactions and cover all European Union (EU-28) countries as well as Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. More ...

New: Migrant integration statistics - employment

Evolution of activity rates in EU-28, population aged 20-64 years by broad groups of citizenship, 2007-13.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the employment of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. More ...

Updated: Unemployment statistics

Change in the number of unemployed persons (compared to previous month, in thousands), seasonally adjusted, January 2006 - June 2014.png
This article presents the very latest unemployment figures for the European Union (EU), the euro area and individual Member States, complemented by an overview of long-term developments since the year 2000.

Unemployment levels and rates move in a cyclical manner, largely related to the general business cycle. However, other factors such as labour market policies and demographic developments may also influence the short and long-term evolution. More ...

Statistics in focus: Trade in energy products


Extra-EU28 imports in key energy produts, 2013.png
The purpose of this study is to give a statistical overview of EU trade in energy products, with a particular focus on imports from Russia. More ...

New: European Neighbourhood Policy - South - labour market statistics

ENPS Economic activity rate by gender 2011.PNG
This article is part of an online publication and presents data on the labour force for nine countries of the European Neighbourhood Policy - South (ENP-South); data are not yet collected for Libya. More ...

Updated: Construction permit index overview

EU28 building permits q sa 2000-2014.png
The indices for building permits are business cycle indicators providing information on the development of granted building permits in the European Union (EU).

Short-term statistics provide two types of indices for building permits. The so-called "dwelling index" simply reflects the evolution in terms of the number of dwellings. More ...

New: Land cover and land use (LUCAS) statistics

Landscape diversity expressed by the Shannon evenness index, by NUTS 2 regions, 2012 (index, range = 0–1) RYB14.png
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat Regional Yearbook publication. It provides information in relation to Eurostat’s land use/cover area frame survey (LUCAS), which provides harmonised and comparable statistics on land cover and land use across the whole of the European Union’s (EU’s) territory (other than Croatia). More ...

Today's article

Research and innovation statistics at regional level

R & D intensity, by NUTS 2 regions, 2011 (1) (total R & D expenditure as a % of GDP) RYB14.png
One of the key aims of the Europe 2020 strategy is to foster research, development and innovation. This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat Regional Yearbook publication. It presents statistical information analysing regional developments for a range of science and technology indicators within the European Union (EU), including the following domains: research and development (R & D), the number of researchers, human resources in science and technology (HRST), employment in high technology sectors and patent applications.

Main statistical findings

Regional research, knowledge and innovative capacity depends on a range of factors — business culture, workforce skills, education and training institutions, innovation support services, technology transfer mechanisms, regional infrastructure, the mobility of researchers, sources of finance and creative potential. Education, training and lifelong learning are considered vital to developing a region’s capacity to innovate, with universities across the EU increasingly implicated in the commercialisation of research, collaboration with regional businesses, and developing the entrepreneurial mind-set of students.

While EU funding seeks to target all regions, the innovation divide across Europe’s regions reflects a pattern whereby the majority of EU regions are low absorbers of Framework Programme funding and structural funds designed to raise their modest levels of research and innovation. There appears to be a regional innovation paradox, whereby those regions characterised by established innovative activity maintain their position as innovative leaders, while those that trail behind fail to catch-up, despite efforts to specifically target funding and policy prescriptions to these regions.

Research and development intensity

The average research and development spend in the EU-28 was EUR 526 per inhabitant in 2012

Map 1: R & D intensity, by NUTS 2 regions, 2011 (1)
(total R & D expenditure as a % of GDP) - Source: Eurostat (rd_e_gerdreg)

Intramural R & D expenditure (GERD) was estimated to be EUR 266.9 billion across the EU-28 in 2012; this equated to an average of EUR 526 of research and development expenditure per inhabitant. A decade earlier, in 2002, R & D expenditure per inhabitant had stood at EUR 382 per inhabitant; note that these figures are in current prices and therefore include the effects of price inflation. More ...