The data in this article show the most recent annual rates of change for the euro area headline inflation and its main components issued by Eurostat. The figures presented are actual HICP figures. More ...
This article presents the SIMSTAT project (where 'SIMSTAT' stands for 'SIngle Market STATistics'), an innovative approach for simplifying Intrastat, the European Union (EU) data collection system on intra-EU trade in goods, which was introduced in January 1993, together with the single market. It aims to reduce the administrative burden on businesses while maintaining data quality by exchanging microdata on intra-EU trade between Member States and re-using them. More ...
This article describes the construction of a set of European Union (EU) economic globalisation indicators, as part of the ESSnet project on global value chains. It presents results for the most important indicators, illustrating the type of information which could be used to track the different aspects of globalisation. More ...
This article presents key messages and data extractions based on Eurostat's third estimation of quarterly gross domestic product (GDP) for the first quarter of 2014 in the European Union (EU-28) and euro area (EA-18) released on 2nd July 2014.
Eurostat's third regular GDP estimation More ...
This article is part of a set of statistical articles based on the Eurostat Regional Yearbook publication. It provides information in relation to Eurostat’s land use/cover area frame survey (LUCAS), which provides harmonised and comparable statistics on land cover and land use across the whole of the European Union’s (EU’s) territory (other than Croatia). Statistics from LUCAS can be used to monitor a range of socio-environmental challenges, among others, the degree of landscape fragmentation, soil degradation or the environmental impact of agriculture. More ...
This article describes recent developments in relation to numbers of asylum applicants and first instance decisions on asylum applications in the European Union (EU). Asylum is a form of international protection given by a state on its territory. It is granted to a person who is unable to seek protection in his/her country of citizenship and/or residence, in particular for fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. More ...
The purpose of this study is to give a statistical overview of EU trade in energy products, with a particular focus on imports from Russia. More ...
This article presents data on income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, across the EU-28 and three EFTA countries. Income inequality is a complex phenomenon, the result of interaction between several factors. It can be related to employment patterns, income sources, individual characteristics (education level, age, gender, etc.) or household features (number of earners in the household, family size, etc.). Inequality is a broader concept than poverty; while poverty mainly relates to the lowest part More ...
This article compares and contrasts figures on wages and labour costs (employers’ expenditure on personnel) in the European Union (EU) Member States and in EU candidate and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries.
Labour plays a major role in the functioning of an economy. From the point of view of businesses, it represents a cost (labour costs) that includes not only the wages and salaries paid to employees but also non-wage costs, mainly social contributions payable by the employer. Thus, it is a key determinant of business competitiveness, although this is also influenced by the cost of capital (for example interests on loans and dividends on equity) and non-price elements such as innovation and the brand / products positioning on the market.
As far as employees are concerned, the compensation received for their work, more commonly called wages or earnings, generally represents their main source of income and therefore has a major impact on their ability to spend or save. Whereas gross wages / earnings include the social contributions payable by the employee, net earnings are calculated after deduction of these contributions and any amounts which are due to government, such as income taxes. As the amount of taxes generally depends on the situation of the household in terms of income and composition, net earnings are calculated for several typical household situations.
The diagram above summarises the relation between net earnings, gross earnings / wages and labour costs.
Main statistical findings
The average hourly labour cost in the EU-28 was estimated at EUR 23.70 in 2013 and at EUR 28.20 in the euro area (EA-18). However, this average masks significant differences between EU Member States, with hourly labour costs ranging between EUR 3.70 and EUR 40.10 (Figure 1).
Labour costs are made up of costs for wages and salaries plus non-wage costs such as employers’ social contributions. The share of non-wage costs for the whole economy was 23.7% in the EU-28, while it was 25.9 % in the euro area. The share of non-wage costs also varies substantially across EU Member States. The highest shares of non-wage costs for the whole economy were in Sweden (33.3 %), France (32.4 %), Lithuania (28.5%), Italy (28.1 %) Belgium and Slovakia (both 27.4 %). The lowest shares of non-wage costs for the whole economy were recorded for Malta (8.0 %), Denmark (12.4 %), Luxembourg (13.4 %), Ireland (13.8 %), Slovenia (14.7 %), the United Kingdom (15.3 %), Croatia (15.4 %) and Bulgaria (15.8 %).