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Welcome to Statistics Explained
Statistics Explained, your guide to European statistics.

Statistics Explained is an official Eurostat website presenting all statistical topics in an easily understandable way. Together, the articles make up everyone's encyclopedia of European statistics, completed by a statistical glossary clarifying all terms used and by numerous links to further information and the very latest data and metadata, a portal for occasional and regular users alike.

To find the information you need, use the hierarchical theme tree, the online publications, the categories or the search function (alt-f).


Updated: Services statistics - short-term indicators

Index of turnover, selected service activities, EU-28, 2004–14 (¹) (2010 = 100) YB15.png
This article examines recent statistics in relation to developments for service activities in the European Union (EU). Short-term business statistics (STS) are provided in the form of indices that allow the rapid assessment of the economic climate within services, providing a first assessment of recent developments for a range of activities. More ...

Updated: Industry and construction statistics - short-term indicators

Production and domestic output price indices for industry (excluding construction), EU-28, 2004–14 (2010 = 100) YB15.png
This article examines recent statistics in relation to developments for both industry and construction in the European Union (EU). Short-term business statistics (STS) are provided in the form of indices that allow the most rapid assessment of the economic climate within industry and construction, providing a first evaluation of recent developments for a range of activities. STS show developments over time, and so may be used to calculate rates of change, typically showing comparisons with the month or quarter before, or the same period of the previous year. As such, STS do not provide information on the level of activity, such as the monetary value of output (value added or turnover), or actual prices. More ...

New: Migrant integration statistics - social inclusion

Evolution of people at risk of poverty or social exclusion by broad group of country of citizenship, 2005–12.png
Migrants play an important role in the labour markets and economies of the countries they settle in. This article presents European Union statistics on the social inclusion of migrants as part of monitoring their integration and assessing their situation in the labour market. This in turn makes it easier to evaluate the outcomes of integration policies. More ...

Updated: Tourism statistics

Country of origin for outbound tourism trips, 2013 (¹) (average nights spent abroad per inhabitant aged 15 years or more) YB15.png
This article provides information on recent statistics in relation to tourism in the European Union (EU). Tourism plays an important role in the EU because of its economic and employment potential, as well as its social and environmental implications. Tourism statistics are not only used to monitor the EU’s tourism policies but also its regional and sustainable development policies. More ...

Updated: Carbon dioxide emissions from final use of products

Domestic and global CO2 emissions — consumption and production perspective, EU-27, 2011 (¹) (tonnes CO2 per inhabitant) YB15.png
This article provides an estimate of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions induced by the final use of products, based on various European Union (EU) data sets. Eurostat estimates the EU-27’s CO2 emissions from final use averaged 7.8 tonnes per inhabitant in 2011. More ...

Updated: Chemicals management statistics

Production of chemicals, EU-28, 2004–13 (¹) (2004 = 100) YB15.png
Work on European Union (EU) statistics concerning hazardous substances started in the mid-1990s when a set of environmental pressure indicators (EPIs) related to chemicals were developed. More recently, a set of indicators to monitor the effectiveness of the Regulation on the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) have been developed. This article presents an analysis of indicators that have been developed and compiled by Eurostat, covering the production of industrial chemicals. More ...

Updated: Railway safety statistics

No of persons killed in railway accidents, 2012-2013.png
This article takes a look at recent annual statistics on rail transport accidents in the European Union (EU). Safety in rail transport has steadily enhanced over the years: in 2013, the decline in number of accidents compared with 2012 could be established at 1.9 %, and the number of victims (killed or injured persons) has also decreased over the same period (-1.9 %). More ...

New: Microdata linking - international sourcing

Percentage of international sourcing for domestically and foreign-controlled enterprises.png
This article describes the microdata linking project launched in 2012, linking the results of the international sourcing survey to structural business statistics (SBS), international trade in goods statistics (ITGS) and foreign affiliates statistics (FATS) on enterprise level, using unique enterprise identification numbers. We start by presenting some of the main findings of this exercise, before outlining the organisation of the project and explaining some methodological issues of the microdata linking approach. We conclude by briefly addressing some other European microdata projects and the way forward for microdata linking. More ...

Today's article

Energy production and imports

Production of primary energy, EU-28, 2012 (% of total, based on tonnes of oil equivalent) YB14.png
The dependency of the European Union (EU) on energy imports, particularly of oil and more recently of gas, forms the backdrop for policy concerns relating to the security of energy supplies. This article looks at the production of primary energy in the EU and, as a result of the shortfall between production and consumption, the EU’s increasing dependency on energy imports from non-member countries. Indeed, more than half (53.4 %) of the EU-28’s gross inland energy consumption in 2012 came from imported sources.

Main statistical findings

Primary production

Production of primary energy in the EU-28 totalled 794.3 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) in 2012. This continued the generally downward trend observed in recent years, with 2010 the main exception as production rebounded after a relatively strong fall in 2009 that coincided with the financial and economic crisis. When viewed over a longer period, the production of primary energy in the EU-28 was 15.7 % lower in 2012 than it had been a decade earlier. The general downward trend of EU-28 production may, at least in part, be attributed to supplies of raw materials becoming exhausted and/or producers considering the exploitation of limited resources uneconomical.

The highest level of primary energy production among the EU Member States was in France, with a 16.8 % share of the EU-28 total, followed by Germany (15.6 %) and the United Kingdom (14.6 %). Compared with a decade earlier the main change was the fall in the share of the United Kingdom, down from 27.1 % — see Table 1. The only other Member States whose shares fell over this period were Denmark (-0.6 percentage points) and Lithuania (-0.4 percentage points). In absolute terms, the largest expansions in the production of primary energy during the 10 years to 2012 were registered in Italy and Sweden (both up 4.4 million toe), and the Netherlands (up 4.3 million toe).

More ...